worldviews (8)

What is a human being?

In answering the question "What is a human being?" each of the 12 worldviews from Rudolf Steiner's "Human and Cosmic Thought" lectures provides a unique perspective:

Worldview Of Materialism
From a materialist perspective, a human being is essentially a complex biological organism, a product of physical matter organized in a highly sophisticated manner. Materialists see humans as entities whose thoughts, feelings, and consciousness emerge from the brain's physical processes. The essence of humanity, in this view, is found in the tangible, measurable reality of the body and its functions, governed by the laws of nature.

Worldview Of Spiritism
Spiritism views a human being as a manifestation of spiritual reality, where the material body is merely a vessel or expression of the underlying spirit. For Spiritists, the essence of a person lies in their spiritual nature, which transcends the physical form. Humans are seen as spiritual beings on a journey of development and evolution, with the material world serving as a stage for spiritual lessons and growth.

Worldview Of Realism
Realism focuses on the direct experience of the world, positing that a human being is an entity that interacts with and perceives an external reality. Realists see humans as integrated into the world, with a capacity to understand and manipulate it. The essence of humanity lies in the ability to observe, learn from, and engage with the surrounding environment.

Worldview Of Idealism
Idealism suggests that a human being is primarily a creature of ideas, with the essence of humanity found in the capacity for thought, imagination, and the pursuit of ideals. Idealists believe that the material world has meaning only insofar as it reflects or embodies these ideas. The true nature of a human lies in their inner life and their striving towards ideals that give purpose and direction.

Worldview Of Mathematism
In Mathematism, a human being is seen as an observer and interpreter of a universe that can be understood and described in mathematical terms. Humans are rational beings capable of deciphering the underlying mathematical structure of reality. The essence of humanity, from this perspective, is the ability to use reason and mathematical insight to navigate and explain the world.

Worldview Of Rationalism
Rationalism asserts that a human being is a rational entity, whose essence lies in the capacity to use logic and reason to understand and interact with the world. Rationalists value ideas and knowledge that are derived from observable facts and logical deductions, seeing humans as beings who seek to make sense of the world through rational thought.

Worldview Of Psychism
Psychism emphasizes the importance of the inner life and the workings of the mind, viewing a human being as a vessel for ideas and consciousness. In this view, the essence of humanity is found in the psyche, the realm of thoughts, emotions, and imagination. Humans are seen as beings whose actions and perceptions are deeply influenced by their inner mental states.

Worldview Of Pnuematism
Pneumatism sees a human being as infused with spirit, an active participant in a world animated by spiritual forces. The essence of humanity lies in the ability to connect with and express the spiritual dimensions of existence. Humans are considered beings of will and action, driven by inner spiritual impulses that manifest in the physical world.

Worldview Of Monadism
Monadism perceives a human being as a monad, a unique, self-contained entity with its own inner life and perspective. The essence of humanity, in this view, is the individual's capacity to generate thoughts and actions from within themselves, contributing to the diversity and richness of the world. Humans are seen as individual expressions of the spiritual, each with their own unique path and purpose.

Worldview Of Dynamism
Dynamism views a human being as a center of energy and force, interacting with and influenced by the dynamic forces of the universe. The essence of humanity lies in the vitality and willpower that drive individuals to act and create. Humans are seen as participants in a cosmic play of forces, with the capacity to harness and direct these energies in their lives.

Worldview Of Phenomenalism
Phenomenalism conceives of a human being as a perceiver of phenomena, with reality being constructed from sensory experiences. The essence of humanity, in this view, is the ability to perceive, interpret, and give meaning to the sensory data that constitutes our experience of the world. Humans are considered constructors of their own reality, piecing together the mosaic of the phenomenal world.

Worldview Of Sensationalism
Sensationalism reduces a human being to a receiver of sense impressions, arguing that the essence of humanity lies in the raw data of the senses. From this perspective, humans are essentially biological entities designed to navigate and respond to the physical world through sensory perception. The true nature of a human is found in the interaction with the world through the senses, which provide the foundation for all knowledge and understanding.

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World Conception Chatbot

How might a person view an apple in 12 different ways under the influence of 12 differenmt worldviews, Materialism, Spiritism, Realism, Idealism, Mathematism, Rationalism, Psychism, Pneumatism, Monadism, Dynamism, Phenomenalism and Sensationalism? Please give specific examples of the thoughts that may arise about the apple.

World Conception Chatbot based on Steiner's Human and Cosmic Thought lectures
Each worldview brings a unique perspective, emphasizing different aspects and interpretations of the apple, from its physical properties to its symbolic meanings and sensory experiences:

Materialism: Sees the apple primarily in terms of its physical properties - its chemical composition, the physical processes involved in its growth, and its tangible characteristics like weight, texture, and color. Thoughts might include, "The apple is a nutritious fruit composed of water, fructose, vitamins, and minerals."

Spiritism: Views the apple as an embodiment or manifestation of spiritual forces or energies. The apple might be considered a living entity with a spiritual essence. Thoughts could be, "This apple is a manifestation of nature's life force, carrying vital energies from the earth and sun."

Realism: Focuses on the apple as it objectively exists in the real world, independent of perceptions or theories about it. Thoughts might include, "This apple is a fruit of the Malus domestica species, grown from a tree in specific soil and climate conditions."

Idealism: Perceives the apple as a concept or idea, potentially contemplating its symbolic meanings or the philosophical implications of its existence. An idealist might think, "The apple represents knowledge and temptation, as symbolized in various historical and religious contexts."

Mathematism: Looks at the apple in terms of mathematical properties and relationships, such as its shape, symmetry, or patterns in its growth cycles. A thought might be, "The apple's shape can be described by specific geometric properties and its growth follows a logarithmic pattern."

Rationalism: Analyzes the apple through logical reasoning and empirical evidence, potentially considering its role in various rational arguments or theories. A rationalist might think, "The cultivation and consumption of apples can be understood through agricultural science and economic principles."

Psychism: Focuses on the psychological impact or symbolic significance of the apple in human consciousness. Thoughts might include, "The apple often triggers a sense of nostalgia or comfort, being associated with health and home."

Pneumatism: Views the apple as a manifestation of a universal spirit, perceiving it as more than a physical object. A Pneumatist might think, "This apple embodies the spirit of nature, connecting me to the greater cosmic consciousness."

Monadism: Views the apple as a singular, self-contained entity, a monad, with its own unique place in the cosmos. A monadist might think, "This apple is a complete universe in itself, encompassing a unique set of characteristics and a specific life cycle."

Dynamism: Focuses on the energy and changes of the apple, such as its growth, decay, or the energy it provides when consumed. Thoughts might include, "The apple embodies a dynamic process of transformation from seed to fruit, and further into energy for living beings."

Phenomenalism: Perceives the apple as a phenomenon, focusing on its appearance and the conditions under which it is perceived. A thought could be, "The color and shape of this apple are perceived differently under varying light conditions and angles."

Sensationalism: Is drawn to the sensory experiences of the apple, such as its taste, smell, and texture. Thoughts might include, "This apple's crisp texture, sweet flavor, and juicy content provide a delightful sensory experience."

Which of the 12 worldviews is expressed in Lincoln's speech: Materialism, Spiritism, Realism, Idealism, Mathematism, Rationalism, Psychism, Pneumatism, Monadism, Dynamism, Phenomenalism or Sensationalism?

"Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.

Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.

But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate -- we can not consecrate -- we can not hallow -- this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us -- that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion -- that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain -- that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom -- and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth."

Abraham Lincoln
November 19, 1863

World Conception Chatbot answer
Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address, as quoted, resonates most closely with the worldview of Idealism within Rudolf Steiner's framework of twelve worldviews. Idealism, in this context, emphasizes ideas, ideals, and moral principles as fundamental to understanding and interpreting the world.

In the speech, Lincoln speaks of the nation being "conceived in Liberty" and dedicated to the idea that "all men are created equal." This emphasis on the ideals of liberty and equality over any material or empirical aspects of the nation aligns with the Idealistic perspective. Furthermore, the focus on the moral and ethical principles that underpin the nation and the war – the dedication to a cause, the devotion to a higher principle of freedom, and the invocation of a "new birth of freedom" – all reflect an Idealistic worldview.

Idealism here is about the power of ideas and ideals to shape history, society, and human action. Lincoln's words transcend the immediate physical and empirical circumstances of the Civil War and speak to the underlying principles and ideals that define and give meaning to the nation's struggle.

Which of the 12 worldviews is expressed in this text?: Materialism, Spiritism, Realism, Idealism, Mathematism, Rationalism, Psychism, Pneumatism, Monadism, Dynamism, Phenomenalism or Sensationalism?

"Everything physical is subject to the laws of physical heredity; but also, the procreative organs, nerve system and blood circulation. The individuality must unite itself with the physical body. The ego with its ennobled astral and etheric bodies, indeed even parts of the physical body, must harmonise with what is inherited; together they must form a harmony. Almost always a harmony also is really formed, for the physical adapts itself to the spiritual (transforms itself). How, if such an adaptation is not possible? How, if the astral body gets a nervous system which it cannot employ straightway? — as a rule, we do not reckon sense-illusions among mental illnesses." Steiner lecture

World Conception Chatbot answer
The specific text you've provided does not directly appear in Rudolf Steiner's "Human and Cosmic Thought." Therefore, to determine which of the 12 worldviews it expresses, I'll analyze its content based on my understanding of Steiner's teachings.

The text discusses the interaction between the physical and spiritual aspects of human beings, emphasizing the need for harmony between inherited physical traits and the individual's spiritual nature. This includes a focus on the astral and etheric bodies, as well as the ego, and how these elements must adapt and harmonize with the physical body.

Given this focus, the worldview most aligned with the text's content appears to be Pneumatism. Pneumatism, in Steiner's framework, emphasizes the role of spirit in the world and in human life. It recognizes the existence of a spiritual world and its interaction with the physical world. This worldview is characterized by an understanding that physical phenomena are ultimately expressions of underlying spiritual realities.

The text's mention of the astral body, the etheric body, and the ego's relationship with the physical body reflects Pneumatism's perspective, where the spiritual aspects of existence are considered fundamental and are seen as interacting with and shaping physical reality.

It's important to note that while this analysis aligns the text with Pneumatism based on the content and themes presented, interpretations of Steiner's complex thought system can vary, and different aspects of his teachings might lead to different conclusions.

What makes the text more pneumatism than spiritism?

World Conception Chatbot answer
To differentiate between Pneumatism and Spiritism in the context of Rudolf Steiner's worldviews, it's essential to understand the subtle distinctions he makes between different approaches to understanding the spiritual aspects of reality.

Pneumatism: This worldview focuses on the active, dynamic aspect of the spirit. In Pneumatism, the emphasis is on the spirit's activity and how it manifests in the world, particularly in human life and consciousness. The spirit is not just a passive entity but an active force that shapes and influences. This worldview is concerned with how spiritual processes and forces are at work in the world, shaping physical reality and human experiences.

Spiritism: While also acknowledging the spiritual realm, Spiritism tends to focus more on the existence of spirits as entities and often involves communication or interaction with these spirits. It's more about the recognition and sometimes the empirical investigation of spirits as distinct entities, rather than focusing on how spiritual forces actively shape and influence the physical world and human consciousness.

The text you provided discusses the integration and harmony of the spiritual (the ego, astral, and etheric bodies) with the physical aspects of existence (the physical body and inherited traits). It emphasizes the active role of the spiritual in transforming and harmonizing with the physical. This perspective aligns more closely with Pneumatism's focus on the active, dynamic role of spirit in the world and in human life, rather than Spiritism's focus on the existence and interaction with spirits as entities.

In Pneumatism, the spiritual is an active, shaping force, not just a realm of entities. This nuance makes the text more reflective of Pneumatism than Spiritism in the context of Steiner's worldviews.


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The 12 Worldviews in Transcendentalism

Each of the 12 worldviews can be described as cognitive processes for knowing the world because they each represent a distinct way in which individuals process information, understand reality, and acquire knowledge. Here is how each can be seen as a cognitive process in chapter 2, The Desire For Knowledge:

Materialist cognitive process: The materialist cognitive process focuses on thought to explain world phenomena. The 'self' is not given a separate influencing role in this conceptual framework. The understanding of the world is constructed in thought, setting aside the subjective aspects of the 'self' from influencing cognition.

Spiritist Cognitive Process: The Spiritualist regards world phenomena a product of spirit-mind and seeks to explain it with spiritualistic theory. The Spiritualist cognitive process involves looking inward, engaging in cognition that is introspective and metaphysical. Their understanding is rooted in the belief that there is a spiritual underpinning to all phenomena.

Realist Cognitive Process: Realists adopt a direct and experiential approach to cognition. They seek to understand the world by engaging with it firsthand, trusting that knowledge comes from active interaction with their environment. The Realist cognitive process values practical experience and evidence gathered through direct sensory engagement with the external world.

Idealist Cognitive Process: Idealists rely on a cognitive process that is conceptual and imaginative. They construct a mental picture of the world based on ideas, principles, and ideals, often without direct reference to empirical evidence. Idealists use thought and reason to form an understanding of the world that may not be immediately verifiable by practical experience, emphasizing the role of the mind in shaping one's reality.

The pursuit of knowledge in Chapter 2 is Transcendentalism. The pursuit of knowledge is felt to have a hidden, transcendent dimension that lies outside inner experience. Here are short statements of each worldview in Transcendentalism I am preparing for the chapter 2 modules. They begin to give a picture of thinking personality types at this stage. This has begun to be very helpful in understanding people I am in contact with. Right now I am staying with a Mathematist and a Dynamist and I also have learned a lot about my Psychist personality from these brief chapter 2 statements.  

Materialism in Transcendentalism: When the worldview of Materialism aligns with Transcendentalism, the pursuit of knowledge is felt to have a hidden, transcendent dimension that lies outside inner experience and seems beyond grasp. The Materialist focuses on observable phenomena and attempts to transcend the world with thought. However, they struggle to comprehend the transcendent questions arising in thought because these questions fall outside their limited materialistic perspective. They shift the problem away from the Self’s own thought, leaving them dissatisfied and feeling separate from the world.

Spiritualism in Transcendentalism: When the worldview of Spiritualism aligns with Transcendentalism, the pursuit of knowledge is felt to have a hidden, transcendent dimension that lies outside inner experience and seems beyond grasp. The Spiritualist focuses on what is produced by the mind alone and attempts to transcend the world with spiritualistic theory. However, they struggle to adequately explain specific, concrete phenomena, as these transcendent aspects are not encompassed by their limited spiritualistic perspective, leaving them dissatisfied and feeling separate from the world.

Realism in Transcendentalism: When the worldview of Realism aligns with Transcendentalism, the pursuit of knowledge is felt to have a hidden, transcendent dimension that lies outside inner experience and seems beyond grasp. The Realist focuses on the external world and attempts to transcend the world by acquiring practical experience, adding content to the mind. However, they struggle to grasp the transcendent abstract concepts necessary for intentional action due to it being outside their limited realistic perspective, leaving them dissatisfied and feeling separate from the world.

Idealism in Transcendentalism: When the worldview of Idealism aligns with Transcendentalism, the pursuit of knowledge is felt to have a hidden, transcendent dimension that lies outside inner experience and seems beyond grasp. The Idealist focuses on the Ego and attempts to transcend the world with magnificent thought-pictures of the world. However, they struggle to acquire the transcendent mind content of practical experience, due to it being outside their limited idealistic perspective, leaving them dissatisfied and feeling separate from the world.

Mathematism in Transcendentalism: When the worldview of Mathematism aligns with Transcendentalism, the pursuit of knowledge is felt to have a hidden, transcendent dimension that lies outside inner experience and seems beyond grasp. The Mathematist focuses on the material world and ideas attempting to transcend the world with Materialistic Idealism by understanding the interplay between mind and matter. However, the paradoxical nature of perception emerges when attempting to explain thought as both a product and creator of material processes, highlighting the interdependent relationship between thought and material processes. The limitations of the Mathematism perspective, focusing on logic and quantification, struggles with the paradoxical nature of perception, finding it challenging to reconcile its subjective and interpretive aspects within a strictly mathematical framework, leaving them dissatisfied and feeling separate from the world.

Rationalism in Transcendentalism: When the worldview of Rationalism aligns with Transcendentalism, the pursuit of knowledge is felt to have a hidden, transcendent dimension that lies outside inner experience and seems beyond grasp. The Rationalist attempts to transcend the world by seeking to understand it in terms of fundamental, indivisible units that constitute both matter and mind. This approach involves reducing complex phenomena to their most basic elements, aiming to discover a unified principle or essence that underlies both the physical (matter) and the non-physical (mind) aspects of reality. However, they encounter difficulties in resolving how this indivisible unity manifests as both matter and mind. The challenge of comprehending transcendent mental states, such as consciousness and cognition, through purely physical terms highlights the limitations of the rationalistic perspective. This difficulty in bridging the gap between the physical and the mental shifts the original problem of consciousness to a different context, leaving them dissatisfied and feeling separate from the world.

Psychism in Transcendentalism: When the worldview of Psychism aligns with Transcendentalism, the pursuit of knowledge is felt to have a hidden, transcendent dimension that lies outside inner experience and seems beyond grasp. The Psychist focuses on the polarity of consciousness and attempts to transcend the world by establishing a contrast between the Self and the World. Due to the initial limits of the Psychist’s perspective, they break away from the world by contrasting themselves in opposition to it, leaving them dissatisfied and feeling separate from the world. However, by recognizing the self as both a distinct entity and integrally connected to the broader world, a feeling of unity and reconciliation can be achieved. This shift in understanding bridges the gap between the inner experience of selfhood and the external reality, leading to a more harmonious and unified perspective.

Pneumatism in Transcendentalism: When the worldview of Pneumatism aligns with Transcendentalism, the pursuit of knowledge is felt to have a hidden, transcendent dimension that lies outside inner experience and seems beyond grasp. The Pneumatist initially experiences feelings of being estranged from nature, leaving them dissatisfied and feeling separate from the world. However, they transcend this disconnection by focusing on a deep, intuitive feeling of unity with nature. This feeling becomes a guide, leading to the emergence of knowledge about nature's external workings, which ultimately reconnects the Pneumatist with the world. This approach reflects a harmonious balance between inner experience and the outer reality of nature, recognizing the feeling of unity with nature as a crucial aspect of understanding and belonging.

Monadism in Transcendentalism: When the worldview of Monadism aligns with Transcendentalism, the pursuit of knowledge is felt to have a hidden, transcendent dimension that lies outside inner experience and seems beyond grasp. Initially the Monadist feels alienated and disconnected from the world due to their unique thought system. In their effort to bridge the gap between their internal thoughts and the external world, they try to force a connection, yet this approach does not yield satisfaction and instead perpetuates their sense of disconnection. This struggle underscores the difficulty in harmonizing a Monadistic perspective with the external reality. However, resolution comes from an inward search for the essence of nature, which ultimately leads to rediscovering their connection with the world. This inward journey marks a significant shift from feeling isolated to reconnecting with the broader reality, illustrating a profound transformation in the Monadist's understanding and relationship with the world.

Dynamism in Transcendentalism: When the worldview of Dynamism aligns with Transcendentalism, the pursuit of knowledge is felt to have a hidden, transcendent dimension that lies outside inner experience and seems beyond grasp. The Dynamist initially focuses on the individual self ("Here I am merely 'I'"), leaving them dissatisfied and feeling separate from the world. However, as the Dynamist delves deeper into self-investigation, they reach a point of realization that there is "something more than ‘I’." This realization of a greater force or essence leads to a sense of unity with the world, transcending a limited perspective to uncovering a broader, more interconnected understanding of existence. This shift from a self-centric view to recognizing a connection with something greater illustrates a significant transformation in the Dynamist's pursuit of knowledge and relationship with the world.

Phenomenalism in Transcendentalism: When the worldview of Phenomenalism aligns with Transcendentalism, the pursuit of knowledge is felt to have a hidden, transcendent dimension that lies outside inner experience and seems beyond grasp. The Phenomenalist, initially engrossed in the results of scientific materialism and academic discourse, experiences dissatisfaction and a feeling of separation. However, by turning their focus to simple, direct descriptions of personal conscious experience and using terminology solely for clarifying actual facts, the Phenomenalist cultivates a feeling of unity with the world. 

Sensationalism in Transcendentalism: When the worldview of Sensationalism aligns with Transcendentalism, the pursuit of knowledge is felt to have a hidden, transcendent dimension that lies outside inner experience and seems beyond grasp. Often criticized for not being scientific, the Sensationalist shifts away from the stringent categorizations of science towards a more experiential approach to knowledge. By focusing on the direct recording of everyday life experiences and prioritizing personal experience of consciousness over scientific interpretations, the Sensationalist moves towards a more immediate and intimate connection with the world. This approach, centered on personal sensory experiences and moment-to-moment awareness, helps bridge the gap between the individual and the world, counteracting feelings of dissatisfaction and separation that arise from ignoring these personal experiences in favor of strictly scientific views. 

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The original 1894 Preface of TPOF begins in Anthropomorphism (Naturalism). This expands out into the Tones Intuitionism (Part I of TPOF, Theory Of Freedom) and Theism (Part II of TPOF Reality Of Freedom). Then Part I and Part II  become 7 chapters according to the 7 Moods (the way one pursues knowledge). Then each chapter becomes an introduction that expresses the chapter theme and Mood followed by 12 worldviews or 12 different perspectives on the chapter theme.

"So does a widespread Anthropomorphism arise in the world. If one goes out beyond man in himself, as one must go out to Sun and Moon for an explanation of the phenomenon of the Earth — something that present-day science does not do — then one comes to recognize three different things, Theism, Intuitionism and Naturalism side by side and each with its justification. For it is not by insisting on one of these tones, but by letting them sound together, that one arrives at the truth. And just as our intimate corporeal relation with Sun, Moon and Earth is placed in the midst of the seven planets, so Anthropomorphism is the world-outlook nearest to the harmony that can sound forth from Theism, Intuitionism and Naturalism, while this harmony again is closest to the conjoined effect of the seven psychic moods; and these seven moods are shaded according to the twelve signs of the Zodiac.

You see, it is not true to talk in terms of one cosmic conception, but of 12 + 7 == 19 + 3 == 22 + 1 == 23 cosmic conceptions which all have their justification. We have twenty-three legitimate names for cosmic conceptions." Human And Cosmic Thought by Rudolf Steiner


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Spiritist Personality In TPOF


By listing the thinking and acting characteristics of the Spiritism worldview found in The Philosophy Of Freedom, a personality type unfolds.

Spiritism: The material world is only a manifestation of the underlying spiritual. By developing our powers, the truth that we seek is revealed through our own inner activity. The way we directly experience the spirit is in the act of thinking. The human spirit is that part of us that thinks.

Spiritism worldview in Rudolf Steiner's Philosophy Of Freedom
1.2 Spiritist action: Freedom Of Choice
Freedom is to make a free choice according to our own wants and preferences.

2.2 Spiritist pursuit of knowledge: Spiritualistic Theory
“The Spiritualist denies Matter (the World) and regards it merely as a product of Mind (the Self). He supposes the whole phenomenal word to be nothing more than a fabric woven by Mind out of itself.”

3.2 Spiritist thinking: Concept Formed Through My Activity
“I am conscious, in the most positive way, that the concept of a thing is formed through my activity.”

4.2 Spiritist perception: Thinking Refers Concept
“When, I, as thinking subject, refer a concept to an object, we must not regard this reference as something purely subjective. It is not the subject, but thinking, that makes the reference.”

5.2 Spiritist knowing: Thinking Assertion
“If I want to assert anything at all about the perception, this can happen only with the help of thinking. If my thought is not applicable to the world, then my result is false.”

6.2 Spiritist individual representation of reality: Thinking Connects An Intuition With The Percept
“The moment a percept appears in my field of consciousness, thought, too, becomes active in me. A member of my thought-system, a definite intuition connects itself with the percept. An idea is nothing but an intuition, a concept, related to a particular percept; it retains this reference to the percept.”

7.2 Spiritist cognition: Cognitive Power Of The Self
“Within ourselves we find the power to discover also the other part of reality. Only when the Self has combined for itself the two elements of reality which are indivisibly bound up with one another in the world, is our thirst for knowledge stilled.”

8.2 Spiritist personality: Perception of Feeling
“Feeling plays on the subjective side exactly the part which percepts play on the objective side. Feeling is the guarantee of the reality of one's own personality.”

9.2 Spiritist idea to act: The Motive Is The Conceptual Factor
“The conceptual factor, or motive, is the momentary determining cause of an act of will. The motive of an act of will can be only a pure concept, or else a concept with a definite relation to perception, i.e., an idea. Motives of will influence the individual make up (characterological disposition) and determine him to action in a particular direction.”

10.2 Spiritist moral authority: Spiritual Force
“Man may picture the extra-human Absolute that lies behind the world of appearances as a spiritual being. In this case he will also seek the impulse for his actions in a corresponding spiritual force. To this kind of dualist the moral laws appear to be dictated by the Absolute, and all that man has to do is to use his intelligence to find out the decisions of the absolute being and then carry them out.”

11.2 Spiritist purpose: Conceptual Factor Of Purpose
“If the effect is to have a real influence upon the cause, it can do so only by means of the conceptual factor.”

12.2 Spiritist moral idea: Moral Imagination
“The human being produces concrete mental pictures from the sum of his ideas chiefly by means of the imagination. Therefore what the free spirit needs in order to realize his ideas, in order to be effective, is moral imagination.”

13.2 Spiritist value of life: Pain Of Striving
Pain Of Striving (universal idleness) “Eternal striving, ceaseless craving for satisfaction which is ever beyond reach, this is the fundamental characteristic of all active will. For no sooner is one goal attained, than a fresh need springs up, and soon. Schopenhauer's pessimism leads to complete inactivity; his moral aim is universal idleness.”

14.2 Spiritist individuality: Generic Medium For Individual Expression
“A man develops qualities and activities of his own, and the basis for these we can seek only in the man himself. What is generic in him serves only as a medium in which to express his own individual being.”

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Phenomenalist Personality In TPOF


By listing the thinking and acting characteristics of the Phenomenalism worldview found in The Philosophy Of Freedom, a personality type unfolds.

Phenomenalism: An explanation of the world of phenomena. There is a world spread out around me, but I do not maintain this world is is the real one. I can only say that it 'appears' to me. I am not saying that this world of colors and sounds, which arises only because certain processes in my eyes present themselves to me as colors, while processes in my ears present themselves to me as sounds—I am not saying that this world is the true world. It is a world of phenomena.

Phenomenalism worldview in Rudolf Steiner's Philosophy Of Freedom
1.11 Phenomenalist action: Idealize A Person
“Love depends on the thoughts we form of the loved one. And the more we idealize the loved one in our thoughts, the more joyful is our love.”

2.11 Phenomenalist pursuit of knowledge: Description Of Consciousness
“I have so far not been concerned with any scientific results, but simply with the description of what every one of us experiences in his own consciousness.”

3.11 Phenomenalist thinking: Impartial Consideration Of Thinking
“We must first consider thinking quite impartially without relation to a thinking subject or to an object of thought. There is no denying that thought must be understood before anything else can be understood.”

4.11 Phenomenalist perception: External Perception Is My Idea
“I thought that the percept, just as I perceive it, had objective existence. But now I observe that it disappears with my act of perception, that it is only a modification of my mental state. For as soon as I see clearly that my sense-organs and their activity, my nerve- and soul-processes, can also be known to me only through perception, the argument which I have outlined reveals itself in its full absurdity.”

5.11 Phenomenalist knowing: Conceptual Connections Of Percepts
“Other than what is immediately perceived, we cannot speak of there being anything except what is known through the conceptual connections between the percepts—connections that are accessible to thinking.”

6.11 Phenomenalist individual representation of reality: Education Of Feelings
“Man is meant to be a whole. Knowledge of objects will go hand-in-hand with the development and education of the feeling-side of his nature.”

7.11 Phenomenalist cognition: Sum of Effects and Underlying Causes
Inductive inference “This kind of conclusion infers, from a sum of effects, the character of their underlying causes.”

8.11 Phenomenalist personality: Ideal Principle And Real Experience Of Feeling and Willing
“Besides the ideal principle which is accessible to knowledge, there is said to be a real principle which cannot be apprehended by thinking but can yet be experienced in feeling and willing.”

9.11 Phenomenalist idea to act: Free And Unfree Actions
“Our life is made up of free and unfree actions. We cannot, however, form a final and adequate concept of human nature without coming upon the free spirit as its purest expression.”

10.11 Phenomenalist moral authority: Illumine The Phenomena Of The World
“Monism regards the transition through automatic behavior (according to natural drives and instincts) and through obedient behavior (according to moral norms) as necessary preliminary stages for morality, but sees the possibility of surmounting both transitional stages through the free spirit. And it rejects the latter because monism seeks within the world all the principles of explanation which it needs to illumine the phenomena of the world, and seeks none outside it.”

11.11 Phenomenalist purpose: Coherence Within Whole
“The orderly coherence of the members of a perceptual whole is nothing more than the ideal (logical) coherence of the members of the ideal whole which is contained in this perceptual whole.”

12.11 Phenomenalist moral idea: Depends On External Circumstances
“Whether I am able to do, i.e., to make real, what I will, i.e., what I have set before myself as my idea of action, that depends on external circumstances and on my technical skill.”

13.11 Phenomenalist value of life: Highest Pleasure Is The Realization Of Moral Ideals
“Moral ideals spring from the moral imagination of man. They are his intuitions, the driving forces which his spirit harnesses; he wants them, because their realization is his highest pleasure.”

14.11 Phenomenalist individuality: Ethical Conduct
“Only that part of his conduct that springs from his intuitions can have ethical value in the true sense.”

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