Chapter 7 ARE THERE LIMITS TO COGNITION?
Why do people hold a certain view? What is it that convinces someone of something? It depends on their thinking personality. Each Philosophy Of Freedom chapter describes 12 thinking personality types.
Chapter 7 of The Philosophy Of freedom describes the cognizing process. The aspect of the cognition process that most interests someone depends on their thinking personality type. Here are some notes on the 12 views of the cognizing process. A free person will be aware of all the 12 world-outlooks and apply them according to need.
7.0 Chapter 7 mood is Gnosis (power of cognitional forces) Introduction: We have established that the elements for the explanation of reality are to be taken from the two spheres of perception and thought. It is due, as we have seen, to our organization that the full totality of reality, including our own selves as subjects, appears at first as a duality. Cognition transcends this duality by fusing the two elements of reality, the percept and the concept, into the complete thing.
7.1 Materialist cognizing (physical world) Hypothetical World Principle and Experience. It is quite natural that a Dualistic thinker should be unable to find the connection between the world-principle which he hypothetically assumes and the facts that are given in experience.
7.2 Spiritist cognizing (what underlies world, gained by inner activity) Ego-hood. Within ourselves we find the power to discover also the other part of reality. Only when the Self has combined for itself the two elements of reality which are indivisibly bound up with one another in the world, is our thirst for knowledge stilled.
7.3 Realist cognizing (external world) Reconcile Familiar Perceptions and Concepts. A world of percepts, conditioned by time, space, and our subjective organization, stands over against a world of concepts expressing the totality of the universe. Our task consists in reconciling these two spheres, both of which we are familiar.
7.4 Idealist cognizing (looks for progressive tendency) Conceptual Representation Of Objective Reality. The object has an objective (independent of the subject) reality, the percept a subjective reality. This subjective reality is referred by the subject to the object. This reference is an ideal one.
7.5 Mathematist cognizing (calculating, order) Real Principles in addition to Ideal Principles. The ideal principles which thinking discovers are too airy for the Dualist, and he seeks, in addition, real principles with which to support them.
7.6 Rationalist cognizing Real Evidence of Senses in addition to Ideal Evidence. The naive man demands, in addition to the ideal evidence of his thinking, the real evidence of his senses.
7.7 Psychist cognizing (psychology, ideas are bound up with a being) Vanishing Perceptions and Ideal Entities. The tulip I see is real today; in a year it will have vanished into nothingness. What persists is the species "tulip." Naive Realism is compelled to acknowledge the existence of something ideal by the side of percepts. It must include within itself entities which cannot be perceived by the senses.
7.8 Pneumatist cognizing (spirit) Perceptible Reality and Imperceptible Reality. Metaphysical Realism constructs, beside the perceptible reality, an imperceptible one which it conceives on the analogy of the former.
7.9 Monadist cognizing (build up existence in itself) Sum of Perceptions and Laws of Nature. Monism replaces forces by ideal relations which are supplied by thinking. These relations are the laws of nature. A law of nature is nothing but the conceptual expression for the connection of certain percepts.
7.10 Dynamist cognizing (force is present) Separation and then Reunion of “I” into World Continuity. Through my perceptions, i.e., through this specifically human mode of perception, I, as subject, am confronted with the object. The nexus of things is thereby broken. The subject reconstructs the nexus by means of thinking. In doing so it re-inserts itself into the context of the world as a whole.
7.11 Phenomenalist cognizing (appearance of phenomena and interpretation) Sum of Effects and Underlying Causes. This kind of conclusion infers, from a sum of effects, the character of their underlying causes.
7.12 Sensationalist cognizing (accept sense impression without mixed in thought) By reflecting on the process of cognition they have convinced themselves of the existence of an objectively real world continuity alongside what is “subjectively” cognizable through percept and concept.