Chapter 12 And The Twelve Aspects Of Moral Ideas

Why do people hold a certain view? What is it that convinces someone of something? It depends on their thinking personality. Each Philosophy Of Freedom chapter describes 12 thinking personality types.

Chapter 12 of The Philosophy Of freedom describes moral ideas. The aspect of moral ideas that most interests someone depends on their thinking personality type. Here are some notes on the 12 views of moral ideas. A free person will be aware of all the 12 world-outlooks and apply them according to need.

12.0 Chapter 12 mood is Mysticism (world revealed within) Introduction: A free spirit acts according to his impulses, i.e., intuitions, which his thought has selected out of the whole world of his ideas. For an unfree spirit, the reason why he singles out a particular intuition from his world of ideas, in order to make it the basis of an action, lies in the perceptual world which is given to him, i.e., in his past experiences.
12.1 Materialist moral idea (physical world) Concrete Idea: Whenever the impulse for an action is present in a general conceptual form (for example, Thou shalt do good to thy fellow men! Thou shalt live so that thou best promotest thy welfare!) then for each particular case the concrete mental picture of the action must first be found.
12.2 Spiritist moral idea (what underlies world, gained by inner activity) Moral Imagination:
The human being produces concrete mental pictures from the sum of his ideas chiefly by means of the imagination. Therefore what the free spirit needs in order to realize his ideas, in order to be effective, is moral imagination.
12.3 Realist moral idea (external world) Moral Technique: Moral action, in addition to the faculty of having moral ideas (moral intuition) and moral imagination, is the ability to transform the world of percepts without violating the natural laws by which these are connected. This ability is moral technique.
12.4 Idealist moral idea (looks for progressive tendency) History Of Moral Ideas: Moral imagination can become objects of knowledge only after they have been produced by the individual. We therefore deal with them as with a natural history of moral ideas.
12.5 Mathematist moral idea (calculating, order) Normative Moral Laws: Some people have wanted to maintain the standard-setting (normative) character of moral laws.
12.6 Rationalist moral idea Traditional Moral Doctrines: Is not every man compelled to measure the products of his moral imagination by the standard of traditional moral doctrines?
12.7 Psychist moral idea (psychology, ideas are bound up with a being) While it is quite true that the moral ideas of the individual have perceptibly grown out of those of his ancestors, it is also true that the individual is morally barren, unless he has moral ideas of his own.
12.8 Pneumatist moral idea (spirit) Rejection Of Supernatural Influence: Absolutely new moral ideas are developed by the moral imagination. The Monistic world-view, rejects, in morality as in science, every transcendent (metaphysical) influence.
12.9 Monadist moral idea (build up existence in itself) Moral Self-determination: The life of moral self-determination is the continuation of organic life. The characterizing of an action, whether it is a free one, he must leave to the immediate observation of the action.
12.10 Dynamist moral idea (force is present) Observation yields freedom as the characteristic quality of the perfect form of human action.
12.11 Phenomenalist moral ideag (appearance of phenomena and interpretation) Whether I am able to do, i.e., to make real, what I will, i.e., what I have set before myself as my idea of action, that depends on external circumstances and on my technical skill.
12.12 Sensationalist moral idea (accept sense impression without mixed in thought) Under certain conditions a man may be induced to abandon the execution of his will; but to allow others to prescribe to him what he shall do ―in other words, to will what another and not what he himself regards as right― to this a man will submit only when he does not feel free.

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