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World Outlooks In TPOF

The Philosophy Of Freedom
Principles


PART I : THEORY
The Theory of Freedom


0. THE GOAL OF KNOWLEDGE
1. CONSCIOUS HUMAN ACTION
2. WHY THE DRIVE FOR KNOWLEDGE IS FUNDAMENTAL
3. THOUGHT AS THE INSTRUMENT OF KNOWLEDGE
4. THE WORLD AS PERCEPT
5. OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THE WORLD
6. HUMAN INDIVIDUALITY
7. ARE THERE ANY LIMITS TO COGNITION?
PART II : PRACTICE
The Reality of Freedom


8. THE FACTORS OF LIFE
9. THE IDEA OF FREEDOM
10. MONISM AND THE PHILOSOPHY OF FREEDOM
11. WORLD PURPOSE AND LIFE PURPOSE (The Destiny Of Man)
12. MORAL IMAGINATION (Darwinism and Morality)
13. THE VALUE OF LIFE (Optimism and Pessimism)
14. THE INDIVIDUAL AND THE GENUS

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PREFACE 
THE GOAL OF KNOWLEDGE

 

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CHAPTER 1 
CONSCIOUS HUMAN ACTION

principles of action

Chapter 1 CONSCIOUS HUMAN ACTION
Why do people hold a certain view? What is it that convinces someone of something? It depends on their thinking personality. Each Philosophy Of Freedom chapter describes 12 thinking personality types.

Chapter 1 of The Philosophy Of freedom describes the acting process. The aspect of the action process that most interests someone depends on their thinking personality type. Here are some notes on the 12 views of the action process. A free person will be aware of all the 12 world-outlooks and apply them according to need.

1.0 Chapter 1 mood is Occultism (hidden to perception and ordinary cognition) Introduction: Is man free in action and thought, or is he bound by an iron necessity? One and the same thing is thus proclaimed, now as the most precious possession of humanity, now as its most fatal illusion.

1.1 Materialist action (physical world) Freedom of Indifferent Choice: Neutrally choosing, entirely at will, one or the other of two possible courses of action.
Opposed: There always exists a specific reason to explain why we carry out an action.
1.2 Spiritist action (what underlies world, gained by inner activity) Freedom Of Choice:
Make a free choice according to our own wants and preferences.
Opposed: We are not free to desire or not desire arbitrarily.
1.3 Realist action (external world) Free Necessity Of One's Nature: Freedom is to express the necessity of our own nature.
Opposed: However complex, our nature is determined by external causes to act in a fixed and exact way.
1.4 Idealist action (looks for progressive tendency) Free From External Influences: We act on an idea only if it is first accepted by our “character”.
Opposed: An idea is made into a motive according to the 'necessity' of our characterological disposition.
1.5 Mathematist action (calculating, order) Action Resulting From Conscious Motive: Rather than blind urge, we act according to a conscious motive. The knowing doer.
Opposed: The knower has been separated from the doer. We don’t always do what we know should be done.
1.6 Rationalist action Free When Controlled By Rational Decision: Freedom is to determine one's life and action by purpose and deliberate decisions.
Opposed: A rational decision may emerge in me with the same necessity as hunger and thirst arise.
1.7 Psychist action (psychology, ideas are bound up with a being) Free To Do As One Wants: To be free does not mean being able to determine what one wants, but being able to do what one wants.
Opposed: If a motive works on me, and I am compelled to follow it because it proves to be the “strongest” of its kind, then the thought of freedom ceases to make any sense.
1.8 Pneumatist action (spirit) Spontaneous Unconditioned Will: Our will is the cause of our movement, the willing itself is “unconditioned”; it is an absolute beginning (a first cause and not a link in a chain of events).
Opposed: We do not perceive the causes that determine our will, so we believe it is not causally determined at all.
1.9 Monadist action (build up existence in itself) Knowledge Of The Reasons: Freedom is an action of which the reasons are known. We reflect of the motive before we act.
Opposed: What is the origin of the thoughts that cause us to act?
1.10 Dynamist action (force is present) Driving Force Of The Heart: Love, compassion, and patriotism are emotional driving forces for action.
Opposed: The heart and its sensibility do not create the motives of action. They allow them to enter. The motives have already been established.
1.11 Phenomenalist action (appearance of phenomena and interpretation) Love Of Action: Love determines our action.
Opposed: Feelings are determined by thought. Love is based on how idealistic are the thoughts we form of the love one.
1.12 Sensationalist action (accept sense impression without mixed in thought) Perception Of Good Qualities: We “see” the good qualities of the loved one. Many pass by without noticing these good qualities.
Opposed: Seeing good qualities is determined by love which opens the eyes to see them. The love is there because mental pictures have been made of the good qualities.

 

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CHAPTER 2 
THE FUNDAMENTAL DESIRE FOR KNOWLEDGE

principles of knowledge

Chapter 2 THE DESIRE FOR KNOWLEDGE
Why do people hold a certain view? What is it that convinces someone of something? It depends on their thinking personality. Each Philosophy Of Freedom chapter describes 12 thinking personality types.

Chapter 2 of The Philosophy Of freedom describes the desiring process. The aspect of the desire for knowledge process that most interests someone depends on their thinking personality type. Here are some notes on the 12 views of the desire process. A free person will be aware of all the 12 world-outlooks and apply them according to need.

2.0 Chapter 2 mood is Transcendentalism (The essence of a thing is transcendent, but I only feel it must be there, outside) Introduction: Nowhere are we satisfied with the facts which nature spreads out before our senses. Everywhere we “seek” what we call the explanation of these facts.

2.1 Materialist desire (physical world) Desires an explanation of the physical world. It is confronted by two different sets of facts, the material world and the thoughts about it. To reconcile this, thoughts are understood as purely physical processes.
2.2 Spiritist desire (what underlies world, gained by inner activity) Desires spiritualistic theory. The Spiritist denies Matter (the World) and regards it merely as a product of Mind (the self). Is is unable to deduce from Mind any single concrete phenomenon.
2.3 Realist desire (external world) Desires experience of the external world. If one would really know the external world, one must turn one's eye outwards and draw on the fund of experience. Without experience Mind can have no content.
2.4 Idealist desire (looks for progressive tendency) Desires a magnificent elaboration of the world of ideas; without any experience. The Idealist Fichte attempts to deduce the whole edifice of the world from the "Ego." What he has actually accomplished is a magnificent thought-picture of the world, without any empirical content.
2.5 Mathematist desire (calculating, order) (Mathematical paradox between physical and ideal) The Materialists are quite right in declaring all phenomena, including our thought, to be the product of purely material processes, but, in turn, Matter and its processes are for him themselves the product of our thinking.
2.6 Rationalist desire Desires unity between the real world and ideas. Indivisible unity of both Matter and Mind.
2.7 Psychist desire (psychology, ideas are bound up with a being) Desires to resolve polarity of consciousness. We meet with the fundamental opposition first in our own consciousness. It is we ourselves who break away from the bosom of Nature and contrast ourselves as self with the world.
2.8 Pneumatist desire (spirit) Desires to feel we belong to nature. We feel we are in her and belong to her. It can be only her own life which pulses also in us.
2.9 Monadist desire (build up existence in itself) Desires to know the element of nature within that corresponds to nature without. We can find Nature outside of us only if we have first learnt to know her within us. The Natural within us must be our guide to her.
2.10 Dynamist desire (force is present) Desires something more than 'I'. We must reach a point where we can say, This is no longer merely ' I,' this is something more than ' I.'
2.11 Phenomenalist desire (appearance of phenomena and interpretation) Desires a description of consciousness. I have so far not been concerned with any scientific results, but simply with the description of what every one of us experiences in his own consciousness.
2.12 Sensationalist desire (accept sense impression without mixed in thought) Desires the facts of everyday experience. I am concerned, not with the way in which science has interpreted consciousness, but with the way in which we experience it every moment of our lives.

 

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CHAPTER 3
THOUGHT AS THE INSTRUMENT OF KNOWLEDGE

principles of thinking

Chapter 3 THINKING IN THE SERVICE OF APPREHENDING THE WORLD 
Why do people hold a certain view? What is it that convinces someone of something? It depends on their thinking personality. Each Philosophy Of Freedom chapter describes 12 thinking personality types.

Chapter 3 of The Philosophy Of freedom describes the thinking process. The aspect of the thinking process that most interests someone depends on their thinking personality type. Here are some notes on the 12 views of the thinking process. A free person will be aware of all the 12 world-outlooks and apply them according to need.

3.0 Chapter mood is Mysticism (world is revealed within) Introduction: I try to add to the occurrence that runs its course without my participation (outside observation) a second occurrence that takes place (within), in the conceptual sphere.

3.1 Materialist thinking (physical world) I observe the table and I carry out my thinking about the table, but I do not at the same moment observe my thought.
3.2 Spiritist thinking (what underlies world, gained by inner activity) I am conscious, in the most positive way, that the concept of a thing is formed through my activity.
3.3 Realist thinking (external world) Activity which is directed solely on the observed object (external world) and not on the thinking subject.
3.4 Idealist thinking (looks for progressive tendency) We enter the “exceptional state” and think about our own thoughts.
3.5 Mathematist thinking (calculating, order) I know immediately, from the content of the two concepts, why my thought connects the concept of thunder with that of lightning.
3.6 Rationalist thinking I know the reason for linking thought with thought.
3.7 Psychist thinking (psychology, ideas are bound up with a being) I qualify my existence by the determinate and self-sustaining content of my thinking activity.
3.8 Pneumatist thinking (spirit) When we reflect upon thinking itself we enter the realm of pure thought and add to the number of objects of observation.
3.9 Monadist thinking (build up existence in itself) We create before knowing. We must resolutely proceed with thinking, in order afterward, by means of observation of what we ourselves have done, gain knowledge of it.
3.10 Dynamist thinking (force is present) Archimedes thought he could lift the whole cosmos out of its hinges, if only he could find a point of support for his instrument. He needed a point which was self-supporting. In thought we have a principle which is self-subsisting.
3.11 Phenomenalist thinking (appearance of phenomena and interpretation) We must first consider thinking quite impartially without relation to a thinking subject or to an object of thought. There is no denying that thought must be understood before anything else can be understood.
3.12 Sensationalist thinking (accept sense impression without mixed in thought) There are people who say it is impossible to ascertain with certainty whether thinking is right or wrong. It would be just as intelligent to raise doubts as to whether a tree is in itself right or wrong. Thought is a fact, and it is meaningless to speak of the truth or falsity of a fact.

 

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CHAPTER 4
THE WORLD AS PERCEPT

principles of perception

Chapter 4 THE WORLD AS PERCEPTION
Why do people hold a certain view? What is it that convinces someone of something? It depends on their thinking personality. Each Philosophy Of Freedom chapter describes 12 thinking personality types.

Chapter 4 of The Philosophy Of freedom describes the perception process. The aspect of the perception process that most interests someone depends on their thinking personality type. Here are some notes on the 12 views of the perception process. A free person will be aware of all the 12 world-outlooks and apply them according to need.

4.0 The chapter mood is Empiricism (immediate external experience) Introduction: When someone sees a tree, his thinking reacts to his observation; an ideal element is added to the perceived object, and the perceiver regards the object and its ideal complement as belonging together.

4.1 Materialist perceiving (physical world) Walking through the fields a partridge is discovered to be the source of a rustling noise. The mental process used was to generalize experience.
4.2 Spiritist perceiving (what underlies world, gained by inner activity) When, I, as thinking subject, refer a concept to an object, we must not regard this reference as something purely subjective. It is not the subject, but thinking, that makes the reference.
4.3 Realist perceiving (external world) All that is perceived before thinking begins is the pure content of perception. The world would appear as a mere chaotic aggregate of sense-data, colors, sounds, sensations of pressure, of warmth, of taste, of smell, and, lastly, feelings of pleasure and pain. This mass constitutes the world of pure unthinking perception.
4.4 Idealist perceiving (looks for progressive tendency) Every extension of the circle of my percepts compels me to correct my picture of the world.
4.5 Mathematist perceiving (calculating, order) I should like to call the dependence of my perceptual world on my point of observation "mathematical," and its dependence on my organization "qualitative." The former determines proportions of size and mutual distances of my percepts, the latter their quality.
4.6 Rationalist perceiving So long as things are not actually perceived by me, or do not exist in my mind, they must have no existence.
4.7 Psychist perceiving (psychology, ideas are bound up with a being) When the tree disappears from my field of vision, an after-effect of this process remains within myself, a picture of the tree. My self has become enriched; to its content a new element has been added.
4.8 Pneumatist perceiving (spirit) For Berkeley nothing is real except God and human spirits. What we call the "world" exists only in spirits. This theory is confronted by the now predominant Kantian which instead of spirits speaks of unknowable things-in-themselves.
4.9 Monadist perceiving (build up existence in itself) Nothing can any longer be found of what exists outside of me and originally stimulated my sense-organs. The external object, on its way to the brain, and through the brain to the soul, has been entirely lost. What we perceive is something we produce.
4.10 Dynamist perceiving (force is present) What the naive man regards as existing outside of him, is really a product of my “soul”.
4.11 Phenomenalist perceiving (appearance of phenomena and interpretation) For as soon as I see clearly that my sense-organs and their activity, my nerve- and soul-processes, can also be known to me only through perception (appearance), the argument which I have outlined reveals itself in its full absurdity.
4.12 Sensationalist perceiving (accept sense impression without mixed in thought) Only my real eye and my real hand, but not my ideas "eye" and "hand," could have, connected to them, the representations "sun" and "earth" as modifications.

 

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CHAPTER 5
OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THE WORLD

principles of conception

Chapter 5 KNOWING THE WORLD
Why do people hold a certain view? What is it that convinces someone of something? It depends on their thinking personality. Each Philosophy Of Freedom chapter describes 12 thinking personality types.

Chapter 5 of The Philosophy Of Freedom describes the conceiving process. The aspect of the conception process that most interests someone depends on their thinking personality type. Here are some notes on the 12 views of the conception process. A free person will be aware of all the 12 world-outlooks and apply them according to need.

5.0 Chapter 5 mood is Volunteerism (intention, character of will of a thing) Introduction: Someone taking this standpoint does not bother himself about the inner connection of his conscious perceptions, but only about their causes, which have an existence independent of him.

5.1 Materialist conception (physical world) If the things of our experience were mental pictures, then our everyday life would be like a dream and knowledge of the true state of affairs would be like waking up.
5.2 Spiritist conception (what underlies world, gained by inner activity) If I want to assert anything at all about the perception, this can happen only with the help of thinking.
5.3 Realist conception (external world) Set the plant before yourself. It connects itself, in your mind, with a definite concept.
5.4 Idealist conception (looks for progressive tendency) A continuous process of becoming. If I watch the rosebud without interruption, I shall see today's state gradually change into tomorrow's through an infinite number of intermediate stages.
5.5 Mathematist conception (calculating, order) Indivisible existence of concept with percept. Mathematics teaches me to distinguish various kinds of lines, one of which is the parabola. If I analyze the conditions under which the stone thrown by me moves, I find that the line of its flight is identical with the line I know as a parabola.
5.6 Rationalist conception It is necessary to isolate certain sections of the world and to consider them by themselves. Our understanding can grasp only single concepts out of a connected conceptual system. This isolation is a subjective act.
5.7 Psychist conception (psychology, ideas are bound up with a being) Self-perception is to be distinguished from self-determination, by thinking. Through thinking, I integrate the percepts of myself into the world process.
5.8 Pneumatist conception (spirit) The concept of the triangle grasped by me is the same as that grasped by my neighbor. The single, unitary concept of the triangle does not become many by being thought by many thinkers.
5.9 Monadist conception (build up existence in itself) All attempts to discover any other principle of unity in the world than this internally coherent ideal content, which we gain for ourselves by the conceptual analysis of our percepts, are bound to fail.
5.10 Dynamist conception (force is present) The form in which thought first appears in consciousness we will call "Intuition." An external object remains unintelligible to us, until the corresponding intuition arises within us which adds to the reality those sides of it which are lacking in the percept.
5.11 Phenomenalist conception (appearance of phenomena and interpretation) Other than what is immediately perceived, we cannot speak of there being anything except what is known through the conceptual connections between the percepts—connections that are accessible to thinking.
5.12 Sensationalist conception (accept sense impression without mixed in thought) A percept always appears as a quite specific, concrete content. The mental picture is a subjective percept in contrast to the objective percept of a thing lying within the field of vision.

 

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CHAPTER 6
HUMAN INDIVIDUALITY

principles of mental picturing

Chapter 6 INDIVIDUALITY
Why do people hold a certain view? What is it that convinces someone of something? It depends on their thinking personality. Each Philosophy Of Freedom chapter describes 12 thinking personality types.

Chapter 6 of The Philosophy Of freedom describes the representing process (mental picturing). The aspect of the representation process that most interests someone depends on their thinking personality type. Here are some notes on the 12 views of the representing process. A free person will be aware of all the 12 world-outlooks and apply them according to need.

6.0 Chapter 6 mood is Logicism (connecting parts into a whole) Introduction: My perception of the tree exists within the same whole as does my self. As world-knower I can discover the common element in both percept and self — as two sides of one existence which belong together — only through thinking, which relates both to each other through concepts.

6.1 Materialist representing (physical world) Every change in an object is perceived by us as a process of motion. This physiological fact can throw no light on the relation of percepts to ideas. We must find our way by some other means.
6.2 Spiritist representing (what underlies world, gained by inner activity) The moment a percept appears in my field of consciousness, thought, too, becomes active in me. A member of my thought-system, a definite intuition connects itself with the percept. An idea is nothing but an intuition, a concept, related to a particular percept; it retains this reference to the percept.
6.3 Realist representing (external world) An idea is therefore nothing but an individualized concept. And now we can see how “real” objects can be represented to us by ideas.
6.4 Idealist representing (looks for progressive tendency) The sum of my ideas may be called my experience. The man who has the greater number of individualized concepts (ideas) will be the man of richer experience. The unthinking traveler and the student absorbed in abstract conceptual systems are alike incapable of acquiring a rich experience.
6.5 Mathematist representing (calculating, order) Cognitive personality: If our personality expressed itself only in cognition, the totality of all that is objective would be contained in percept, concept, and idea.
6.6 Rationalist representing We are not satisfied merely to refer percepts, by means of thinking, to concepts, but we relate them also to our private subjectivity, our individual Ego. The expression of this relation to us as individuals is feeling, which manifests itself as pleasure and pain.
6.7 Psychist representing (psychology, ideas are bound up with a being) Thinking and feeling correspond to the twofold nature of our being. It is only because with self-knowledge we experience self-feeling and with the perception of objects pleasure and pain, that we live as individuals who have a special value in themselves.
6.8 Pneumatist representing (spirit) The farther we ascend into the universal nature of thought, the more the character of unique personality becomes lost in us. True individuality belongs to him whose feelings reach up to the farthest possible extent into the region of the ideal.
6.9 Monadist representing (build up existence in itself) Each one of us has his special standpoint from which he looks out on the world. His concepts link themselves to his percepts. He has his own special way of forming general concepts.
6.10 Dynamist representing (force is present) Intensity Of Feelings. Each of us combines special feelings, and these in the most varying degrees of intensity, with his percepts.
6.11 Phenomenalist representing (appearance of phenomena and interpretation) Man is meant to be a whole. Knowledge of objects will go hand-in-hand with the development and education of the feeling-side of his nature.
6.12 Sensationalist representing (accept sense impression without mixed in thought) Feeling is the means whereby, in the first instance, concepts gain concrete life.

 

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CHAPTER 7
ARE THERE ANY LIMITS TO COGNITION?

principles of cognition

Chapter 7 ARE THERE LIMITS TO COGNITION?
Why do people hold a certain view? What is it that convinces someone of something? It depends on their thinking personality. Each Philosophy Of Freedom chapter describes 12 thinking personality types.

Chapter 7 of The Philosophy Of freedom describes the cognizing process. The aspect of the cognition process that most interests someone depends on their thinking personality type. Here are some notes on the 12 views of the cognizing process. A free person will be aware of all the 12 world-outlooks and apply them according to need.

7.0 Chapter 7 mood is Gnosis (power of cognitional forces) Introduction: We have established that the elements for the explanation of reality are to be taken from the two spheres of perception and thought. It is due, as we have seen, to our organization that the full totality of reality, including our own selves as subjects, appears at first as a duality. Cognition transcends this duality by fusing the two elements of reality, the percept and the concept, into the complete thing.

7.1 Materialist cognizing (physical world) Hypothetical World Principle and Experience. It is quite natural that a Dualistic thinker should be unable to find the connection between the world-principle which he hypothetically assumes and the facts that are given in experience.
7.2 Spiritist cognizing (what underlies world, gained by inner activity) Ego-hood. Within ourselves we find the power to discover also the other part of reality. Only when the Self has combined for itself the two elements of reality which are indivisibly bound up with one another in the world, is our thirst for knowledge stilled.
7.3 Realist cognizing (external world) Reconcile Familiar Perceptions and Concepts. A world of percepts, conditioned by time, space, and our subjective organization, stands over against a world of concepts expressing the totality of the universe. Our task consists in reconciling these two spheres, both of which we are familiar.
7.4 Idealist cognizing (looks for progressive tendency) Conceptual Representation Of Objective Reality. The object has an objective (independent of the subject) reality, the percept a subjective reality. This subjective reality is referred by the subject to the object. This reference is an ideal one.
7.5 Mathematist cognizing (calculating, order) Real Principles in addition to Ideal Principles. The ideal principles which thinking discovers are too airy for the Dualist, and he seeks, in addition, real principles with which to support them.
7.6 Rationalist cognizing Real Evidence of Senses in addition to Ideal Evidence. The naive man demands, in addition to the ideal evidence of his thinking, the real evidence of his senses.
7.7 Psychist cognizing (psychology, ideas are bound up with a being) Vanishing Perceptions and Ideal Entities. The tulip I see is real today; in a year it will have vanished into nothingness. What persists is the species "tulip." Naive Realism is compelled to acknowledge the existence of something ideal by the side of percepts. It must include within itself entities which cannot be perceived by the senses.
7.8 Pneumatist cognizing (spirit) Perceptible Reality and Imperceptible Reality. Metaphysical Realism constructs, beside the perceptible reality, an imperceptible one which it conceives on the analogy of the former.
7.9 Monadist cognizing (build up existence in itself) Sum of Perceptions and Laws of Nature. Monism replaces forces by ideal relations which are supplied by thinking. These relations are the laws of nature. A law of nature is nothing but the conceptual expression for the connection of certain percepts.
7.10 Dynamist cognizing (force is present) Separation and then Reunion of “I” into World Continuity. Through my perceptions, i.e., through this specifically human mode of perception, I, as subject, am confronted with the object. The nexus of things is thereby broken. The subject reconstructs the nexus by means of thinking. In doing so it re-inserts itself into the context of the world as a whole.
7.11 Phenomenalist cognizing (appearance of phenomena and interpretation) Sum of Effects and Underlying Causes. This kind of conclusion infers, from a sum of effects, the character of their underlying causes.
7.12 Sensationalist cognizing (accept sense impression without mixed in thought) By reflecting on the process of cognition they have convinced themselves of the existence of an objectively real world continuity alongside what is “subjectively” cognizable through percept and concept.

 

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CHAPTER 8
THE FACTORS OF LIFE

principles of personality

Chapter 8 THE FACTORS OF LIFE
Why do people hold a certain view? What is it that convinces someone of something? It depends on their thinking personality. Each Philosophy Of Freedom chapter describes 12 thinking personality types.

Chapter 8 of The Philosophy Of freedom describes personality. The aspect of personality that most interests someone depends on their thinking personality type. Here are some notes on the 12 views of personality. A free person will be aware of all the 12 world-outlooks and apply them according to need.

8.0 Chapter 8 mood is GNOSIS (power of cognitional forces) Introduction: Cognitive Personality: If we call the establishment of such a thought connection an "act of cognition", and the resulting condition of our self "knowledge", then, assuming the above supposition to be true, we should have to consider ourselves as beings who merely cognize or know.

8.1 Materialist personality (physical world) Feeling Personality: The Naïve Realist holds that the personality actually lives more genuinely in the life of feeling than in the purely ideal element of knowledge.
8.2 Spiritist personality (what underlies world, gained by inner activity) Perception of Feeling: To begin with, feeling is exactly the same, on the subjective side, as the perception is on the objective side.
8.3 Realist personality (external world) Incomplete Feeling: Feeling is an incomplete reality, which, in the form in which it first appears to us, does not yet contain its second factor, the concept or idea.
8.4 Idealist personality (looks for progressive tendency) Feeling Of Existence: The concept of self emerges from within the dim feeling of our own existence.
8.5 Mathematist personality (calculating, order) Cultivation Of Feeling: The cultivation of the life of feeling appears more important than anything else.
8.6 Rationalist personality Feeling Knowledge: Attempts to make feeling, rather than knowing, the instrument of knowledge.
8.7 Psychist thinking (psychology, ideas are bound up with a being) Philosopher Of Feeling: Makes a universal principle out of something that has significance only within one's own personality.
8.8 Pneumatist personality (spirit) Feeling Mysticism: Wants to raise feeling, which is individual, into a universal principle.
8.9 Monadist personality (build up existence in itself) Willing Personality: The individual relation of our self to what is objective.
8.10 Dynamist personality (force is present) Philosophy Of Will: The will becomes the world-principle of reality.
8.11 Phenomenalist personality (appearance of phenomena and interpretation) Real Experience Of Feeling and Willing: Besides the ideal principle which is accessible to knowledge, there is said to be a real principle which cannot be apprehended by thinking but can yet be experienced in feeling and willing.
8.12 Sensationalist personality (accept sense impression without mixed in thought) Universal Will: The will as a universal world-process.

 

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CHAPTER 9
THE IDEA OF FREEDOM

principles of freedom

Chapter 9 THE IDEA OF FREEDOM
Why do people hold a certain view? What is it that convinces someone of something? It depends on their thinking personality. Each Philosophy Of Freedom chapter describes 12 thinking personality types.

Chapter 9 of The Philosophy Of freedom describes the idea to act. The aspect of the idea to act that most interests someone depends on their thinking personality type. Here are some notes on the 12 views of the idea to act. A free person will be aware of all the 12 world-outlooks and apply them according to need.

9.0 Chapter 9 mood is Logicism (connecting parts into a whole) Introduction: What is brought into ideal relation to the external world by means of the concept, is an immediate experience of my own, a percept of my self. More precisely, it is a percept of my self as active, as producing effects on the external world. In apprehending my own acts of will, I connect a concept with a corresponding percept, viz., with the particular volition. In other words, by an act of thought I link up my individual faculty (my will) with the universal world-process
.
9.1 Materialist idea to act (physical world) External Idea: Idea from our conceptual system which corresponds to the external world and is conditioned by this external world.
9.2 Spiritist idea to act (what underlies world, gained by inner activity) Motive Of Will: Universal and individual concepts (ideas) become motives of will by influencing the individual make up (characterological disposition) and determining him to action in a particular direction.
9.3 Realist idea to act (external world) Characterological disposition: Habitual ideas and feelings, determined by experience and environment.
9.4 Idealist idea to act (looks for progressive tendency) Levels of morality.
9.5 Mathematist idea to act (calculating, order) Practical reason: The action is neither a stereotyped one, nor is it automatically performed in response to an external impulse. Rather it is determined solely through its ideal content.
9.6 Rationalist idea to act Moral Motive: The action is individually adapted to the special case and the special situation, and yet at the same time is ideally determined by pure intuition.
9.7 Psychist idea to act (psychology, ideas are bound up with a being) Ethical Individualism: To express in life the aggregate of the ideas in us that refers to action, our moral substance, is ethical individualism.
9.8 Pneumatist idea to act (spirit) Love For The Objective: I do not ask whether my action is good or bad; I perform it because I am in love with it.
9.9 Monadist idea to act (build up existence in itself) Expression Of Ideals In Individual Way: The individual element in me is not my organism with its instincts and feelings, but rather the unified world of ideas which reveals itself through this organism. An act the grounds for which lie in the ideal part of my individual nature is free.
9.10 Dynamist idea to act (force is present) Harmony Of Intentions: If we both draw our intuitions really from the world of ideas, and do not obey mere external impulses (physical or moral), then we can not but meet one another in striving for the same aims, in having the same intentions.
9.11 Phenomenalist idea to act (appearance of phenomena and interpretation) Concept of the Free Human Being: Our life is made up of free and unfree actions. We cannot, however, form a final and adequate concept of human nature without coming upon the free spirit as its purest expression.
9.12 Sensationalist idea to act (accept sense impression without mixed in thought) Moral World Order: The Philistine who looks upon the state as embodied morality is sure to look upon the free spirit as a danger to the state. The free man acts because he has a moral idea, he does not act in order to be moral. Human individuals are the presupposition of a moral world order.

 

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CHAPTER 10
MONISM AND THE PHILOSOPHY OF FREEDOM

principles of moral authority

Chapter 10 MONISM AND THE PHILOSOPHY OF FREEDOM
Why do people hold a certain view? What is it that convinces someone of something? It depends on their thinking personality. Each Philosophy Of Freedom chapter describes 12 thinking personality types.

Chapter 10 of The Philosophy Of freedom describes moral authority. The aspect of moral authority that most interests someone depends on their thinking personality type. Here are some notes on the 12 views of moral authority. A free person will be aware of all the 12 world-outlooks and apply them according to need.

10.0 Chapter 10 mood is Volunteerism (intention, character of will of a thing) Introduction: Naive Realist: The naive man who acknowledges nothing as real except what he can see with his eyes and grasp with his hands, demands for his moral life, too, grounds of action which are perceptible to his senses. He is ready to allow these grounds of action to be dictated to him as commands by anyone whom he considers to be a power superior to himself. This accounts for the moral principles which rest on the authority of family, state, society, church, and God.

10.1 Materialist authority (physical world) Mechanical Necessity: If the hypothetically assumed entity is conceived as in itself unthinking, acting according to purely mechanical laws, as materialism would have it, then it must also produce out of itself, by purely mechanical necessity, the human individual with all his characteristic features. I believe myself free;but in fact all my actions are nothing but the result of the material processes which underlie my physical and mental organization.
10.2 Spiritist authority (what underlies world, gained by inner activity) Absolute Spiritual Being:
Another possibility is that a man may picture the extra-human Absolute that lies behind the world of appearances as a spiritual being. In this case he will also seek the impulse for his actions in a corresponding spiritual force. To this kind of dualist the moral laws appear to be dictated by the Absolute, and all that man has to do is to use his intelligence to find out the decisions of the absolute being and then carry them out.
10.3 Realist authority (external world) Infer Without Experiencing The True Reality:
Whereas the Materialistic Dualist turns man into an automaton, the action of which is nothing but the effect of causality according to purely mechanical laws, the Spiritualistic Dualist (i.e., he who treats the Absolute, the thing-in-itself, as spiritual) makes man the slave of the will of the Absolute. Any metaphysical realism which infers something outside man as true reality and which does not experience this reality, is out of the question.
10.4 Idealist authority (looks for progressive tendency) Imposed Principles: Naive and metaphysical realism both see in human beings merely executors of principles that have been necessarily imposed upon them. Naive realism kills freedom through subjection to the authority of a perceptible being or, to the abstract inner voice that it interprets as conscience. Metaphysical realists see human beings as determined, mechanically or morally, by a “being-in-itself.”
10.5 Mathematist authority (calculating, order) Accept The Moral Principles Of Others: Anyone incapable of producing moral ideas through intuition must receive them from others. To the extent that humans receive their ethical principles from without, they are in fact unfree.
10.6 Rationalist authority Free When Obey Self: If anybody maintains of the action of a fellow-man that it has not been freely done, he is bound to produce within the visible world the thing or the person or the institution which has caused the agent to act. And if he supports his contention by an appeal to causes of action lying outside the real world of our percepts and thoughts, then Monism must decline to take account of such an assertion.
10.7 Psychist authority (psychology, ideas are bound up with a being) Realization Of The Free Spirit Within: According to the monistic view man acts in part unfreely, in part freely. He finds himself to be unfree in the world of his perceptions, and makes real within himself the free spirit.
10.8 Pneumatist authority (spirit) Moral Laws Conceived By Individuals: The moral commandments, which the merely inference-drawing metaphysician has to regard as flowing from a higher power, are, for the believer in monism, the thoughts of men; the moral world order is the free work of man.
10.9 Monadist authority (build up existence in itself) Freedom Stage Of Development: Monism looks upon man as a developing being, and asks whether, in the course of this development, he can reach the stage of the free spirit.
10.10 Dynamist authority (force is present) Discover Self: Monism knows that Nature does not send forth man ready-made as a free spirit, but that she leads him up to a certain stage, from which he continues to develop still as an unfree being, until he reaches the point where he finds his own self.
10.11 Phenomenalist authority (appearance of phenomena and interpretation) Free Moral World Conception: Monism regards the transition through automatic behavior (according to natural drives and instincts) and through obedient behavior (according to moral norms) as necessary preliminary stages for morality, but sees the possibility of surmounting both transitional stages through the free spirit. And it rejects the latter because monism seeks within the world all the principles of explanation which it needs to illumine the “phenomena” of the world, and seeks none outside it.
10.12 Sensationalist authority (accept sense impression without mixed in thought) Humanist Morality: Just as Monism refuses even to entertain the thought of cognitive principles other than those applicable to men, so it rejects also the concept of moral maxims other than those originated by men. Human morality, like human knowledge, is conditioned by human nature. For Monists, morality is a specifically human quality, and freedom the human way of being moral.

 

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CHAPTER 11

WORLD-PURPOSE AND LIFE-PURPOSE
(THE DESTINY OF MAN)

principles of purpose

Chapter 11 WORLD PURPOSE AND LIFE PURPOSE
Why do people hold a certain view? What is it that convinces someone of something? It depends on their thinking personality. Each Philosophy Of Freedom chapter describes 12 thinking personality types.

Chapter 11 of The Philosophy Of freedom describes human purpose. The aspect of human purpose that most interests someone depends on their thinking personality type. Here are some notes on the 12 views of human purpose. A free person will be aware of all the 12 world-outlooks and apply them according to need.

11.0 Chapter 11 mood is Empiricism (immediate external experience) Concept Of Purpose: Purpose is a special kind of sequence of phenomena. Such adaptation is genuinely real only when, in contrast to the relation of cause and effect in which the antecedent event determines the subsequent, the subsequent event determines the antecedent. This is possible only in the sphere of human actions.
11.1 Materialist purpose (physical world) Percept Cause: The percept of the cause precedes the percept of the effect.
11.2 Spiritist purpose (what underlies world, gained by inner activity) Conceptual Factor: If the effect is to have a real influence upon the cause, it can do so only by means of the conceptual factor.
11.3 Realist purpose (external world) Real factor: In order to have a purposive connection it is not only necessary to have an ideal connection of consequent and antecedent according to law, but the concept (law) of the effect must really, i.e., by means of a perceptible process, influence the cause.
11.4 Idealist purpose (looks for progressive tendency) Ideal factor: The naive consciousness attempts to introduce perceptible factors where only ideal factors can actually be found. In sequences of perceptible events it looks for perceptible connections, or, failing to find them, it imports them by imagination.
11.5 Mathematist purpose (calculating, order) Laws Of Nature: Monism rejects the concept of purpose in every sphere, with the sole exception of human action. It looks for laws of Nature, but not for purposes of Nature.
11.6 Rationalist purpose Purposes Of Life: Life-purposes which man does not set up for himself, are, from the standpoint of Monism, illegitimate assumptions. Nothing is purposive except what man has made so, for only the realization of ideas originates anything purposive.
11.7 Psychist purpose (psychology, ideas are bound up with a being) Human Destiny: Life has no other purpose or function than the one which man gives to it. If the question be asked: What is man's purpose in life? Monism has but one answer: The purpose which he gives to himself.
11.8 Pneumatist purpose (spirit) Only Doers Realize Purposeful Ideas: Ideas are realized only by human agents. Consequently, it is illegitimate to speak of the embodiment of ideas by history.
11.9 Monadist purpose (build up existence in itself) Formative Principle: The structure of every natural object, be it plant, animal, or man, is not determined and conditioned by an idea of it floating in midair, but by the formative principle of the more inclusive whole of Nature which unfolds and organizes itself in a purposive manner."
11.10 Dynamist purpose (force is present) Teleology: Teleology maintains only that, in spite of the thousand misfits and miseries of this natural life, there is a high degree of adaptation to purpose and plan unmistakable in the formations and developments of Nature.
11.11 Phenomenalist purpose (appearance of phenomena and interpretation) Coherence Within Whole: The orderly coherence of the members of a perceptual whole is nothing more than the ideal (logical) coherence of the members of the ideal whole which is contained in this perceptual whole.
11.12 Sensationalist purpose (accept sense impression without mixed in thought) For monism, with the falling away of the absolute world being who cannot be experienced but is only hypothetically inferred, there also falls away any reason for ascribing purpose to the world and to nature.

 

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CHAPTER 12

MORAL IMAGINATION
(DARWINISM AND MORALITY)

principles of moral ideas

Chapter 12 MORAL IMAGINATION
Why do people hold a certain view? What is it that convinces someone of something? It depends on their thinking personality. Each Philosophy Of Freedom chapter describes 12 thinking personality types.

Chapter 12 of The Philosophy Of freedom describes moral ideas. The aspect of moral ideas that most interests someone depends on their thinking personality type. Here are some notes on the 12 views of moral ideas. A free person will be aware of all the 12 world-outlooks and apply them according to need.

12.0 Chapter 12 mood is Mysticism (world revealed within) Introduction: A free spirit acts according to his impulses, i.e., intuitions, which his thought has selected out of the whole world of his ideas. For an unfree spirit, the reason why he singles out a particular intuition from his world of ideas, in order to make it the basis of an action, lies in the perceptual world which is given to him, i.e., in his past experiences.
12.1 Materialist moral idea (physical world) Concrete Idea: Whenever the impulse for an action is present in a general conceptual form (for example, Thou shalt do good to thy fellow men! Thou shalt live so that thou best promotest thy welfare!) then for each particular case the concrete mental picture of the action must first be found.
12.2 Spiritist moral idea (what underlies world, gained by inner activity) Moral Imagination:
The human being produces concrete mental pictures from the sum of his ideas chiefly by means of the imagination. Therefore what the free spirit needs in order to realize his ideas, in order to be effective, is moral imagination.
12.3 Realist moral idea (external world) Moral Technique: Moral action, in addition to the faculty of having moral ideas (moral intuition) and moral imagination, is the ability to transform the world of percepts without violating the natural laws by which these are connected. This ability is moral technique.
12.4 Idealist moral idea (looks for progressive tendency) History Of Moral Ideas: Moral imagination can become objects of knowledge only after they have been produced by the individual. We therefore deal with them as with a natural history of moral ideas.
12.5 Mathematist moral idea (calculating, order) Normative Moral Laws: Some people have wanted to maintain the standard-setting (normative) character of moral laws.
12.6 Rationalist moral idea Traditional Moral Doctrines: Is not every man compelled to measure the products of his moral imagination by the standard of traditional moral doctrines?
12.7 Psychist moral idea (psychology, ideas are bound up with a being) While it is quite true that the moral ideas of the individual have perceptibly grown out of those of his ancestors, it is also true that the individual is morally barren, unless he has moral ideas of his own.
12.8 Pneumatist moral idea (spirit) Rejection Of Supernatural Influence: Absolutely new moral ideas are developed by the moral imagination. The Monistic world-view, rejects, in morality as in science, every transcendent (metaphysical) influence.
12.9 Monadist moral idea (build up existence in itself) Moral Self-determination: The life of moral self-determination is the continuation of organic life. The characterizing of an action, whether it is a free one, he must leave to the immediate observation of the action.
12.10 Dynamist moral idea (force is present) Observation yields freedom as the characteristic quality of the perfect form of human action.
12.11 Phenomenalist moral ideag (appearance of phenomena and interpretation) Whether I am able to do, i.e., to make real, what I will, i.e., what I have set before myself as my idea of action, that depends on external circumstances and on my technical skill.
12.12 Sensationalist moral idea (accept sense impression without mixed in thought) Under certain conditions a man may be induced to abandon the execution of his will; but to allow others to prescribe to him what he shall do ―in other words, to will what another and not what he himself regards as right― to this a man will submit only when he does not feel free.

 

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CHAPTER 13

THE VALUE OF LIFE
(OPTIMISM AND PESSIMISM)

principles of life's value

Chapter 13 THE VALUE OF LIFE
Why do people hold a certain view? What is it that convinces someone of something? It depends on their thinking personality. Each Philosophy Of Freedom chapter describes 12 thinking personality types.

Chapter 13 of The Philosophy Of freedom describes the value of life. The aspect of the value of life that most interests someone depends on their thinking personality type. Here are some notes on the 12 views of the value of life. A free person will be aware of all the 12 world-outlooks and apply them according to need.

13.0 Chapter 13 mood is Transcendentalism (The essence of a thing is transcendent, but I only feel it must be there, outside) Introduction: One view says that this world is the best that could conceivably exist, and that to live and to act in it is a blessing of untold value. The other view maintains that life is full of misery and want; everywhere pain outweighs pleasure, sorrow outweighs joy.

13.1 Materialist value of life (physical world) Best Possible World (cooperative participation): The world is the best of all possible worlds. A better world is impossible for God is good and wise. From this optimistic standpoint, then, life is worth living. It must stimulate us to co-operative participation.
13.2 Spiritist value of life (what underlies world, gained by inner activity) Pain Of Striving (universal idleness): Eternal striving, ceaseless craving for satisfaction which is ever beyond reach, this is the fundamental characteristic of all active will. For no sooner is one goal attained, than a fresh need springs up, and soon. Schopenhauer's pessimism leads to complete inactivity; his moral aim is universal idleness.
13.3 Realist value of life (external world) Pain Outweighs Pleasure (unselfish service): The human being has to permeate his whole being with the recognition that the pursuit of individual satisfaction (egoism) is a folly, and that he ought to be guided solely by the task of dedicating himself to the progress of the world. Hartmann's pessimism leads us to activity devoted to a sublime task.
13.4 Idealist value of life (looks for progressive tendency) Pleasure Of Striving (future goal): Striving (desiring) in itself gives pleasure. Who does not know the enjoyment given by the hope of a remote but intensely desired goal?
13.5 Mathematist value of life (calculating, order) Quantity Of Pleasure (rational estimation of feeling): What is the right method for comparing the sum of pleasure to pain? Eduard von Hartmann believes that it is reason that holds the scales.
13.6 Rationalist value of life Quality Of Pleasure (critical examination of feeling): If we strike out feelings from the pleasure side of the balance on the ground that they are attached to objects which turn out to have been illusory, we make the value of life dependent not on the quantity but on the quality of pleasure, and this, in turn, on the value of the objects which cause the pleasure.
13.7 Psychist value of life (psychology, ideas are bound up with a being) Pursuit Of Pleasure (hopelessness of egotism): If the quantity of pain in a person's life became at any time so great that no hope of future pleasure could help him to get over the pain, then the bankruptcy of life's business would inevitably follow.
13.8 Pneumatist value of life (spirit) Value Of Pleasure (satisfaction of needs): The magnitude of pleasure is related to the degree of my need. If I am hungry enough for two pieces of bread and can only get one, the pleasure I derive from it had only half the value it would have had if the eating of it has satisfied my hunger.
13.9 Monadist value of life (build up existence in itself) Will For Pleasure (intensity of desire): The question is not at all whether there is a surplus of pleasure or of pain, but whether the will is strong enough to overcome the pain.
13.10 Dynamist value of life (force is present) Magnitude Of Pleasure (amusement): If it is only a question whether, after the day's work, I am to amuse myself by a game or by light conversation, and if I am totally indifferent to what I do as long as it serves the purpose, then I simply ask myself: What gives me the greatest surplus of pleasure?
13.11 Phenomenalist value of life (appearance of phenomena and interpretation) Highest Pleasure (realization of moral ideals): Moral ideals spring from the moral imagination of man. They are his intuitions, the driving forces which his spirit harnesses; he wants them, because their realization is his highest pleasure.
13.12 Sensationalist value of life (accept sense impression without mixed in thought) Joy Of Achievement (measure achievement against aims): He acts as he wants to act, that is, in accordance with the standard of his ethical intuitions; and he finds in the achievement of what he wants the true enjoyment of life. He determines the value of life by measuring achievements against aims.

 

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CHAPTER 14

THE INDIVIDUAL AND THE GENUS

principles of free individuality

Chapter 14 INDIVIDUALITY AND TYPE
Why do people hold a certain view? What is it that convinces someone of something? It depends on their thinking personality. Each Philosophy Of Freedom chapter describes 12 thinking personality types.

Chapter 14 of The Philosophy Of freedom describes individuality. The aspect of individuality that most interests someone depends on their thinking personality type. Here are some notes on the 12 views of individuality. A free person will be aware of all the 12 world-outlooks and apply them according to need.

14.0 Chapter 14 mood is OCCULTISM (hidden to perception and ordinary cognition) Introduction: Group Member: A person bears the general characteristics of the groups to which he belongs.

14.1 Materialist thinking (physical world)  Group Characteristics: If we ask why some particular thing about a person is like this or like that, we are referred back from the individual to the genus.
14.2 Spiritist thinking (what underlies world, gained by inner activity) Generic Medium For Individual Expression: A man develops qualities and activities of his own, and the basis for these we can seek only in the man himself. What is generic in him serves only as a medium in which to express his own individual being.
14.3 Realist thinking (external world) Individual Capacities And Inclinations: A man's activity in life is governed by his individual capacities and inclinations, whereas a woman's is supposed to be determined solely by the mere fact that she is a woman.
14.4 Idealist thin king (looks for progressive tendency) Individual Social Decision: What a woman, within her natural limitations, wants to become had better be left to the woman herself to decide.
14.5 Mathematist thinking (calculating, order) Unique Characteristics: Determining the individual according to the laws of his genus ceases where the sphere of freedom (in thinking and acting) begins.
14.6 Rationalist thinking Intuitive Conceptual Content: The conceptual content which man has to connect with the percept by an act of thinking in order to have the full reality cannot be fixed once and for all and bequeathed ready-made to mankind. The individual must get his concepts through his own intuition.
14.7 Psychist thinking (psychology, ideas are bound up with a being)  Individual Concrete Aims: It is not possible to determine from the general characteristics of man what concrete aims the individual may choose to set himself.
14.8 Pneumatist thinking (spirit)  Individual Views And Actions: And every kind of study that deals with abstract thoughts and generic concepts is but a preparation for the knowledge we get when a human individuality tells us his way of viewing the world, and for the knowledge we get from the content of his acts of will.
14.9 Monadist thinking (build up existence in itself) Emancipation Of Knowing: If we are to understand a free individuality we must take over into our own spirit those concepts by which he determines himself, in their pure form (without mixing our own conceptual content with them).
14.10 Dynamist thinking (force is present) Free Spirit: Only to the extent that a man has emancipated himself in this way from all that is generic, does he count as a free spirit within a human community.
14.11 Phenomenalist thinking (appearance of phenomena and interpretation) Intuitive Conduct: Only that part of his conduct that springs from his intuitions can have ethical value in the true sense.
14.12 Sensationalist thinking (accept sense impression without mixed in thought) Moral Life Of Humanity: The moral life of humanity is the sum-total of the products of the moral imagination of free human individuals.

 


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