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Chapter 10 And The Twelve Aspects Of Moral Authority

Why do people hold a certain view? What is it that convinces someone of something? It depends on their thinking personality. Each Philosophy Of Freedom chapter describes 12 thinking personality types.

Chapter 10 of The Philosophy Of freedom describes moral authority. The aspect of moral authority that most interests someone depends on their thinking personality type. Here are some notes on the 12 views of moral authority. A free person will be aware of all the 12 world-outlooks and apply them according to need.

10.0 Chapter 10 mood is Volunteerism (intention, character of will of a thing) Introduction: Naive Realist: The naive man who acknowledges nothing as real except what he can see with his eyes and grasp with his hands, demands for his moral life, too, grounds of action which are perceptible to his senses. He is ready to allow these grounds of action to be dictated to him as commands by anyone whom he considers to be a power superior to himself. This accounts for the moral principles which rest on the authority of family, state, society, church, and God.
10.1 Materialist authority (physical world) Mechanical Necessity: If the hypothetically assumed entity is conceived as in itself unthinking, acting according to purely mechanical laws, as materialism would have it, then it must also produce out of itself, by purely mechanical necessity, the human individual with all his characteristic features. I believe myself free;but in fact all my actions are nothing but the result of the material processes which underlie my physical and mental organization.
10.2 Spiritist authority (what underlies world, gained by inner activity) Absolute Spiritual Being:
Another possibility is that a man may picture the extra-human Absolute that lies behind the world of appearances as a spiritual being. In this case he will also seek the impulse for his actions in a corresponding spiritual force. To this kind of dualist the moral laws appear to be dictated by the Absolute, and all that man has to do is to use his intelligence to find out the decisions of the absolute being and then carry them out.
10.3 Realist authority (external world) Infer Without Experiencing The True Reality:
Whereas the Materialistic Dualist turns man into an automaton, the action of which is nothing but the effect of causality according to purely mechanical laws, the Spiritualistic Dualist (i.e., he who treats the Absolute, the thing-in-itself, as spiritual) makes man the slave of the will of the Absolute. Any metaphysical realism which infers something outside man as true reality and which does not experience this reality, is out of the question.
10.4 Idealist authority (looks for progressive tendency) Imposed Principles: Naive and metaphysical realism both see in human beings merely executors of principles that have been necessarily imposed upon them. Naive realism kills freedom through subjection to the authority of a perceptible being or, to the abstract inner voice that it interprets as conscience. Metaphysical realists see human beings as determined, mechanically or morally, by a “being-in-itself.”
10.5 Mathematist authority (calculating, order) Accept The Moral Principles Of Others: Anyone incapable of producing moral ideas through intuition must receive them from others. To the extent that humans receive their ethical principles from without, they are in fact unfree.
10.6 Rationalist authority Free When Obey Self: If anybody maintains of the action of a fellow-man that it has not been freely done, he is bound to produce within the visible world the thing or the person or the institution which has caused the agent to act. And if he supports his contention by an appeal to causes of action lying outside the real world of our percepts and thoughts, then Monism must decline to take account of such an assertion.
10.7 Psychist authority (psychology, ideas are bound up with a being) Realization Of The Free Spirit Within: According to the monistic view man acts in part unfreely, in part freely. He finds himself to be unfree in the world of his perceptions, and makes real within himself the free spirit.
10.8 Pneumatist authority (spirit) Moral Laws Conceived By Individuals: The moral commandments, which the merely inference-drawing metaphysician has to regard as flowing from a higher power, are, for the believer in monism, the thoughts of men; the moral world order is the free work of man.
10.9 Monadist authority (build up existence in itself) Freedom Stage Of Development: Monism looks upon man as a developing being, and asks whether, in the course of this development, he can reach the stage of the free spirit.
10.10 Dynamist authority (force is present) Discover Self: Monism knows that Nature does not send forth man ready-made as a free spirit, but that she leads him up to a certain stage, from which he continues to develop still as an unfree being, until he reaches the point where he finds his own self.
10.11 Phenomenalist authority (appearance of phenomena and interpretation) Free Moral World Conception: Monism regards the transition through automatic behavior (according to natural drives and instincts) and through obedient behavior (according to moral norms) as necessary preliminary stages for morality, but sees the possibility of surmounting both transitional stages through the free spirit. And it rejects the latter because monism seeks within the world all the principles of explanation which it needs to illumine the “phenomena” of the world, and seeks none outside it.
10.12 Sensationalist authority (accept sense impression without mixed in thought) Humanist Morality: Just as Monism refuses even to entertain the thought of cognitive principles other than those applicable to men, so it rejects also the concept of moral maxims other than those originated by men. Human morality, like human knowledge, is conditioned by human nature. For Monists, morality is a specifically human quality, and freedom the human way of being moral.

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© Tom Last 2017