Twelve World-Outlooks

Meet The Study Group

The Philosophy Of Freedom Study Guide
Description of World-Outlooks

Welcome to the Philosophy Of Freedom study group where we will learn about ethical individualism.
We have brought together a diverse discussion panel to introduce you to a progressive philosophy of life.
The panel will go through the entire book chapter by chapter and discuss the main topics.
You are welcome to participate by posting your questions and comments in the comment box.
I am the group moderator and will attempt to deepen the conversation.
The chapters in “The Philosophy Of Freedom” are structured in a certain way.
A chapter begins with an introduction to the chapter theme, which is followed by 12 views of the theme.
Each of the 12 views are an expression of a different world-outlook. 
The book is much easier to understand if you know something about the 12 outlooks.
Each of our panel members represent one of the 12 outlooks and will present that chapter view in our study group discussion. 
The outlooks appear in each chapter in this order.
1. Materialism 2. Spiritism 3. Realism 4. Idealism 5. Mathematism 6. Rationalism 7. Psychism 8. Pneumatism 9. Monadism 10. Dynamism 11. Phenomenalism and 12. Sensationalism. 
Now lets meet our panel and learn about the view-point that they will be presenting.

1. Materialism
I am a materialist.
As a scientist I try to explain everything by sticking to what I know, the material world and its laws.

2. Spiritism
I am a Spiritist.
The material world is only a manifestation of the world of mind.
By developing our powers, the Truth that we seek comes to us through our own inner activity.

3. Realism
As a Realist and repair man I recognize the external world.
The external world that surrounds me is something I can see and think about.

4. Idealism
I am a professor with the world-outlook of Idealism.
The world has no meaning unless there is within it a progressive tendency. 
I am interested in the world of ideas and ideals that give the world meaning and purpose.

Moderator: These are the four basic world-views.
The other views are variations between these four.
Materialists direct their attention on the outer material-physical world.
Spiritists direct their attention on the world of spirit or Mind.
Realists on the external world that surrounds them.
And Idealists on the world of ideas.

5. Mathematism
I am a programming engineer with a world view of Mathematism.
Mathematical thinking taught me that if I focus and control my thinking I can arrive at the correct answer by following a logical sequence of thought.
I discovered that there are mathematical laws that apply as soundly in the phenomenal world as they do within the world of thought.

Moderator: This is significant since these laws exist within their own right, independent of us, and apply to both worlds; they unify the mind and the world.
Later, in chapter two, we will learn about the problem of the knowledge gap that exists between our thoughts and the world.

6. Rationalism
Rationalism is essential for a lawyer like myself; the world-outlook of Rationalism.
If mathematical ideas are real in the world, why should not other ideas correctly apply to the world?
I accept ideas that are discovered in the world, outside myself.
Rational ideas are backed up by evidence found in the world.

7. Psychism
I am a psychologist with the world-outlook of Psychism.
My interest is in people.
We must remember that ideas are bound up with some one who is capable of having ideas.
Ideas are connected with people.

8. Pneumatism
I am a Pnuematist and psychic.
I seek forces beyond the material world.
Pneuma is a word for "spirit".
I believe there is an active spirit in the outside world.

9. Monadism
I am a philosopher with the world-outlook of Monadism.
I am a self-conscious and completely self-dependent ego.
Truth is not revealed to outer observation so I do not accept anything as truth from the outside world.
I have conceptual powers to grasp the directing principle of things within myself.
All my experience, sensation, and knowledge is the result of my own inner activity.

10. Dynamism
My world-outlook is Dynamism.
I am an artist who believes that change and progress are brought about by dynamic forces.
I look for the forces and energies that are behind external phenomena.
Forces dominate everything.

11. Phenomenalism
My outlook is Phenomenalism.
As a researcher I describe the appearance or observed features of what I experience.
Other than my observations, I have no right to say more about it.
I am not saying that what appears to me is the true world.
It is a world of phenomena.

12. Sensationalism
I am a gourmet who loves to cook and my world-view is Sensationalism.
We have a world all around us.
But what we really have is what we have added to it, what we have thought into the world.
I peel off from my experience everything that comes from the understanding and reason, and accept only my sense impressions without interpretation.