|PART I : THEORY
The Theory of Freedom
0. THE GOAL OF KNOWLEDGE
1. CONSCIOUS HUMAN ACTION
2. WHY THE DRIVE FOR KNOWLEDGE IS FUNDAMENTAL
3. THOUGHT AS THE INSTRUMENT OF KNOWLEDGE
4. THE WORLD AS PERCEPT
5. OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THE WORLD
6. HUMAN INDIVIDUALITY
7. ARE THERE ANY LIMITS TO COGNITION?
|PART II : PRACTICE
The Reality of Freedom
8. THE FACTORS OF LIFE
9. THE IDEA OF FREEDOM
10. MONISM AND THE PHILOSOPHY OF FREEDOM
11. WORLD PURPOSE AND LIFE PURPOSE
(The Destiny Of Man)
12. MORAL IMAGINATION (Darwinism and Morality)
13. THE VALUE OF LIFE (Optimism and Pessimism)
14. THE INDIVIDUAL AND THE GENUS
THE GOAL OF KNOWLEDGE
principles of individualism
Principles Of Individualistic Truth
CONSCIOUS HUMAN ACTION
principles of action
THE FUNDAMENTAL DESIRE FOR KNOWLEDGE
principles of knowledge
THOUGHT AS THE INSTRUMENT OF KNOWLEDGE
principles of thinking
THE WORLD AS PERCEPT
principles of perception
4-0 Reactive Thinking
When we see a tree, our thinking reacts to our observation; a conceptual element comes to the object,and we consider the object and the conceptual counterpart as belonging together. Concepts are added to observation.
4.1 Conceptual Search
OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THE WORLD
principles of conception
5.0 Finding The Concept That Corresponds To The World
For anyone with the view that the whole perceived world is only a picture called up in my mind and is actually the effect of unknown things acting on my soul, of course the real question of knowledge will not be concerned with the representations that only exist in my mind, but with the things that are independent of us and lie beyond the reach of our consciousness. He asks: How much can we learn about things indirectly, seeing that we cannot observe them directly?
5.1 The Awakened State Of Thinking
If the things of our experience were "mental pictures", then our everyday life would be like a dream,and the discovery of the true state of affairs would be like waking.
5.2 Thought That Applies To The World
If we want to make an assertion about anything it requires the help of thought. If my thought does not apply to the world, then this result is false.
5.3 World Connects With Corresponding Concept
The world produces thinking in the heads of people with the same necessity as it produces the blossom on a plant? Set the plant before yourself. It connects itself, in your mind, with a definite concept. Why should this concept belong any less to the whole plant than leaf and blossom?
5.4 Process Of Growth
The picture which presents itself to me at any one moment is only a chance cross-section of an object which is in a continual process of growth.
5.5 Indivisible Existence of Concept With Percept
It is possible for a mind to receive the concept at the same time as, and united with, the perception. It would never occur to such a mind that the concept did not belong to the thing. It would have to ascribe to the concept an existence indivisibly bound up with the thing.
5.6 Isolate And Grasp Single Concepts
The human being is a limited being. Only a limited part of the total universe that can be given us at any one time. It is necessary to isolate certain sections of the world and to consider them by themselves. Our understanding can grasp only single concepts out of a connected conceptual system.
5.7 Self Definition Through Thinking
Self-perception must be distinguished from self-determination by means of thought. My self-perception confines me within certain limits, but my thinking is not concerned with these limits. I am the bearer of an activity which, from a higher sphere, determines my limited existence.
5.8 In Thinking We Are The All One Being
In thinking, the concept unites our particular individuality with the whole of the cosmos. In so far as we sense and feel (and also perceive), we are single beings; in so far as we think, we are the all-one being that pervades everything.
5.9 Will Is Objectified In Action And Known By Thinking
The actions of our body become known to us only through self-observation, and that, as such, they are in no way superior to other percepts. If we want to know their real nature, we can do so only by means of thought, by fitting them into the ideal system of our concepts and ideas.
5.10 Corresponding Intuition
An external object which we observe remains unintelligible until the corresponding intuition arises within us which adds to the reality what is lacking in the percept. What appears to us in observation as separate parts becomes combined, bit by bit, through the coherent, unified world of our intuitions. By thinking we fit together again into one piece all that we have taken apart through perceiving.
5.11 Conceptual Connections Of Percepts
Concepts links all our percepts to each another and shows them to us in their mutual relationship.
5.12 Conceptual Intuition Corresponds To Objective Percept
The content of a percept is immediately given and is completely contained in what is given. The question concerning the "what" of a percept can only refer to the conceptual intuition that corresponds to the percept.
principles of mental picturing
6.0 Corresponding Concept Relates Self To The World
I am really identical with the objects; not, however, "I" in so far as I am a perception of myself as subject, but "I" in so far as I am a part of the universal world process. I can discover the common element in both (percept and self) , so far as they are complementary aspects of the world, only through thought which by means of concepts relates the one to the other.
6.1 Sense Perception Of Motion
Just as we can say that the eye perceives a mechanical process of motion in its surroundings as light,so we can affirm that every change in an object, determined by natural law, is perceived by us as a process of motion.
6.2 Mental Picture: Conceptual Intuition Related To A Percept
The moment a percept appears in my field of observation, thinking also becomes active through me. An element of my thought system, a definite intuition, a concept, connects itself with the percept.
6.3 Mental Picture: Individualized Concept
The full reality of a thing is given to us in the moment of observation through the fitting together of concept and percept. By means of a percept, the concept acquires an individualized form, a relationship to this particular perception.
6.4 Mental Picture: Acquired Experience
The sum of those things about which I can form mental pictures may be called my total experience.
6.5 Mental Picture: Subjective Representation Of Reality
Reality presents itself to us as the union of percept and concept; and the subjective representation of this reality presents itself to us as mental picture.
6.6 Refer Percepts To Feelings
We are not satisfied merely to refer the percept, by means of thinking, to the concept, but we relate them also to our particular subjectivity, our individual Ego. The expression of this individual relationship is feeling, which manifests itself as pleasure or displeasure.
6.7 Two-Fold Nature: Thinking And Feeling
Thinking is the element through which we take part in the universal cosmic process; feeling is that through which we can withdraw ourselves into the narrow confines of our own being.
6.8 True Individuality
A true individuality will be those who reach up with their feelings to the farthest possible extent into the region of the ideal.
6.9 Point Of View
Ideas give to our conceptual life an individual stamp. Each one of us has his special standpoint from which he looks out on the world. He has his own special way of forming general concepts.
6.10 Intensity Of Feelings
Each of us combines special feelings, and these in the most varying degrees of intensity, with our perceptions.
6.11 Education Of Feelings
Knowledge of things will go hand in hand with the development and education of the life of feeling.
6.12 Living Concepts
Feeling is the means whereby, in the first instance, concepts gain concrete life.
ARE THERE ANY LIMITS TO COGNITION?
principles of cognition
7.0 Cognitive Unity
It is due, as we have seen, to our organization that the full, complete reality, including our own selves as subjects, appears at first as a duality. Cognition overcomes this duality by fusing the two elements of reality, the percept and the concept gained by thinking, into the complete thing.
7.1 Hypothetical World Principle and Experience
It is quite natural that a dualistic thinker should be unable to find the connection between the world principle which he hypothetically assumes and the things given in experience.
7.2 Ego-hood's Questions and Answers
It is not the world which sets us the questions, but we ourselves. Only when the Ego-hood has taken the two elements of reality which are indivisibly united in the world and has combined them also for itself, is cognitive satisfaction attained.
7.3 Reconcile Familiar Percepts and Concepts
Our cognition is concerned with questions which arise for us through the fact that a sphere of percepts, conditioned by place, time, and our subjective organization, is confronted by a sphere of concepts pointing to the totality of the universe. My task consists in reconciling these two spheres,with both of which I am well acquainted.
7.4 Conceptual Representation Of Objective Reality
We can obtain only conceptual representatives of the objectively real.
7.5 Real Principles in addition to Ideal Principles
The ideal principles which thinking discovers seem too airy for the dualist, and he seeks, in addition,real principles with which to support them.
7.6 Real Evidence of Senses in addition to Ideal Evidence
The naïve person demands the real evidence of his senses in addition to the ideal evidence of his thinking.
7.7 Vanishing Perceptions and Ideal Entities
Its realities arise and perish, while what it regards as unreal, in contrast with the real, persists. Hence naïve realism is compelled to acknowledge, in addition to percepts, the existence of something ideal. It must admit entities which cannot be perceived by the senses.
THE FACTORS OF LIFE
principles of personality
THE IDEA OF FREEDOM
principles of freedom
MONISM AND THE PHILOSOPHY OF FREEDOM
principles of moral authority
WORLD-PURPOSE AND LIFE-PURPOSE
principles of purpose
principles of moral ideas
THE VALUE OF LIFE
principles of life's value
THE INDIVIDUAL AND THE GENUS
principles of free individuality