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What is the origin of thinking?

Chapter 1 concludes with this: [19] However we may care to approach the subject, it becomes more and more clear that the question concerning the nature of human action presupposes another, that of the origin of thinking. So I will turn to this question next.

So Chapter 2 can be organized to answer this question, Where do our thoughts originate, what is the source? How do we first experience thought? Each of the chapter 2 views give an answer. Which do you agree with?

2-1. Thinking originates in material processes
2-2. Thinking originates in the mind
2-3. Thinking originates in experience of the external world
2-4. Thinking originates in the ego
2-5. Thinking originates in sense perception, while sense perception is produced by thinking
2-6. Thinking originates in the indivisible unity of mind and matter
2-7. Thinking originates in our consciousness
2-8. Thinking originates in a feeling of belonging to nature
2-9. Thinking originates within as an inner quality of nature
2-10. Thinking originates as something more than “I”
2-11. Thinking originates as an experience in consciousness
2-12. Thinking originates as a fact of everyday experience

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"The first thing that my contemporaries found unpalatable in my book The Philosophy of Freedom was this: they would have to be prepared first of all to fight their way through to a knowledge of freedom by self-disciplined thinking." If you don't know what freedom is you will be unable to realize freedom because freedom is not an inborn idea, the idea of freedom must first be gained and understood before it can be realized by incorporating it into your life. Since this is a science of freedom it applies to everyone just like global warming does whether you believe in it or not. Steiner's concept of freedom can be found in other sources, a piece discussed here and another part there. All the ideas in POF are discussed elsewhere, separately. After finding the pieces you will still need to fit them together properly. Within POF you find the full concept of freedom with all the parts organized into a whole, but you still have to fight to understand it. You have a good chance if you know nothing of anthroposophy. 

The greatest barrier to understanding POF are the revisions, omissions and explanations of anthroposophists. It really is a scandal. If you began with the original version and had no other reference than Steiner's pre-theosophy work (pre-1900) most wouldn't have a problem. Every truth I get is a correction of an anthroposophy misunderstanding about POF. There misleading translations and misdirecting summaries have set me back a decade. The book can be won through simple reading comprehension if you work with the original 1916 Hoernle edition. That translation still needs basic translation cleaning up and will be done some day.

Anthroposophists distort POF to fit their theory of clairvoyance that for some reason none of them seem to ever achieve (except Steiner, but he was born with it). The science of freedom is not compatible with the vague mysticism of spiritual clairvoyance. A great example of the clarity of the original version is the beginning of Chapter 9 in the original Hoernle edition that explains the relation between ones Conceptual System and Knowledge & Action. Most of this was deleted in the other editions.

[1] THE concept "tree" is conditioned for our knowledge by the percept "tree." There is only one determinate concept which I can select from the general system of concepts and apply to a given percept. The connection of concept and percept is mediately and objectively determined by thought in conformity with the percept. The connection between a percept and its concept is recognized after the act of perception, but the relevance of the one to the other is determined by the character of each.

[2] In willing the situation is different. The percept is here the content of my existence as an individual, whereas the concept is the universal element in me. What is brought into ideal relation to the external world by means of the concept, is an immediate experience of my own, a percept of my Self. More precisely, it is a percept of my Self as active, as producing effects on the external world. In apprehending my own acts of will, I connect a concept with a corresponding percept, viz., with the particular volition. In other words, by an act of thought I link up my individual faculty (my will) with the universal world-process. The content of a concept corresponding to an external percept appearing within the field of my experience, is given through intuition. Intuition is the source for the content of my whole conceptual system. The percept shows me only which concept I have to apply, in any given instance, out of the aggregate of my intuitions. The content of a concept is, indeed, conditioned by the percept, but it is not produced by it. On the contrary, it is intuitively given and connected with the percept by an act of thought. The same is true of the conceptual content of an act of will which is just as little capable of being deduced from this act. It is got by intuition.

[3] If now the conceptual intuition (ideal content) of my act of will occurs before the corresponding percept, then the content of what I do is determined by my ideas. The reason why I select from the number of possible intuitions just this special one, cannot be sought in an object of perception, but is to be found rather in the purely ideal interdependence of the members of my system of concepts. In other words, the determining factors for my will are to be found, not in the perceptual, but only in the conceptual world. My will is determined by my idea.

The conceptual system which corresponds to the external world is conditioned by this external world. We must determine from the percept itself what concept corresponds to it; and how, in turn, this concept will fit in with the rest of my system of ideas, depends on its intuitive content. The percept thus conditions directly its concept and, thereby, indirectly also its place in the conceptual system of my world. But the ideal content of an act of will, which is drawn from the conceptual system and which precedes the act of will, is determined only by the conceptual system itself.
An act of will which depends on nothing but this ideal content must itself be regarded as ideal, that is, as determined by an idea. This does not imply, of course, that all acts of will are determined only by ideas. All factors which determine the human individual have an influence on his will.

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The highest moral principle in the Philosophy Of Freedom is:

To let our moral substance (our moral ideas) express itself in our life is the moral principle of the human being who regards all other moral principles as subordinate. We may call this point of view Ethical Individualism. POF 9-7

What is considered here to be a "moral idea"?

  • Free human beings act because they have a moral idea, they do not act in order to be moral.
  • They who are incapable of producing moral ideas through intuition must receive them from others. In so far as a human being receives their moral principles from without they are actually unfree.
  • It is not possible to deduce a single new moral idea from earlier ones.
  • Freedom is impossible if anything other than I myself (whether a mechanical process or God) determines my moral ideas.
  • Moral ideals have their root in the moral imagination of human beings.
  • A human being without imagination does not create moral ideas.
  • Immature youths without any moral imagination like to look upon the instincts of their half developed natures as the full substance of humanity, and reject all moral ideas which they have not themselves originated, in order that they may "live themselves out" without restriction.
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What is Rudolf Steiner’s Path to Freedom?

This is the script of a video to be posted later today. It is an old video that was given a new audio track.

What is Rudolf Steiner’s Path to Freedom?

“Each one of us has it in themselves to be a free spirit, just as every rose bud has in it a rose."

What is the path of Rudolf Steiner?

Eternal becoming in thinking 
Every step a deepening.
Overcoming the surface,
Penetrating the depths.

“My purpose was to write a biographical account, of how one human soul made the difficult ascent to freedom.”

“I found my own way as best I could, and then later on, described the route that I had taken.”

In a letter to Rosa Mayreder, “If you had rejected my book, it would have been incomparably painful for me… I don’t teach. I relate what I have inwardly experienced. I relate it as I have experienced it.”

He was once asked for which of his books would he be remembered as writer, Rudolf Steiner answered, “For my Philosophy of Freedom.”

The Philosophy of Freedom is a Path of Science

The Philosophy of Freedom is the result of introspective observation, following the methods of natural science.

“I was not setting forth a doctrine, but simply recording inner experiences through which I had actually passed. And I reported them just as I experienced them.”

“What I was really trying to do in The Philosophy of Freedom, was to locate freedom empirically, and thus put it on a solidly scientific basis.”

Galileo took a seminal role in launching the first revolution in the physical sciences, and a key element in this revolution was the rigorous, sophisticated observation of physical phenomena.

Darwin likewise launched a revolution in the life sciences on the basis of decades of meticulous observation of biological phenomena.

By using the Philosophy of Freedom as a map for making introspective observations of inner life, an opportunity exists for a 21st century revolution in our understanding of the mind sciences.

“For one of the things most centrally needed is clarity on the path of inner striving, a clarity of inner striving comparable to the clarity of external striving. Not vague mysticism, but brightest clarity.”

In a conversation with Rudolf Steiner in 1922 Walter Johannes Stein asked,
“What will remain of your work in thousands of years? 
Rudolf Steiner replied: “Nothing but the Philosophy of Freedom,” and then he added: “But everything is contained in it. If someone realizes the act of freedom described there, he finds the whole content of Anthroposophy”.

The pure thinking of science (rightly understood) is the sole avenue leading to the spirituality of the future.

Rudolf Steiner, while writing The Philosophy of Freedom was not concerned with philosophy as such, but with working out for himself the means of expression which, in its very thought-formation could bring about the transformation of those forces which had been brought to highest possible peak in pure scientific thinking and now could become the spring board for a final leap into new realms.

The Philosophy of Freedom is a Path of Cosmic Logic

"In 1894 I made the attempt with my Philosophy of Freedom to provide a philosophic basis on which to approach spiritual science. It presents the wide range of human standpoints, often masquerading under such strange philosophical names, in a way that leaves the reader free of attachment to any particular approach and able to let the various concepts speak for themselves, as though each were a photograph of one and the same object taken from many different angles."

The Philosophy of Freedom is a thought organism whose structure is depicted in Steiner’s World-Outlook diagram found in his Human and Cosmic Thought lectures. 
World-Outlook Diagram
Steiner states the World-Outlook diagram indicates the logic of the Spiritual Hierarchies of the cosmos. "..their logic was indicated in the diagram I drew for you."

“For in the case of a book like this, the important thing is so to organize the thoughts it contains that they take effect. With many other books it doesn’t make a great deal of difference if one shifts the sequence, putting this thing first and that later. But in the case of The Philosophy of Freedom that is impossible. It would be just as unthinkable to put page 150 fifty pages earlier as it would be to put a dog’s hind legs, where the front ones belong.”

“Catharsis is an ancient term for the purification of the astral body by means of meditation and concentration exercises. 
If a reader takes this book as it was meant and relates to it in the way a virtuoso playing a composition on the piano relates to its composer, reproducing the whole piece out of herself, the books organically evolved thought sequence will bring about a high degree of catharsis.”

“Within this book thinking is experienced in a way that makes it impossible for a person involved in it to have any other impression, when he is living in thought, he is living in the cosmos. This relatedness to cosmic mysteries is the red thread running through the book.”

One can’t bend and twist pure thinking to one’s subjective will. Thinking itself thinks. 
The spiritual beings of the higher hierarchies enter free thinking and then your thinking receives its content from above.

The Philosophy of Freedom is a Path of Anthroposophy 

"Anyone interested in looking for them will find the basic principles of anthroposophy already enunciated in this book."

“It takes no great effort of will to observe and then think about one's observations. It takes energy to engage in the activity of sense-free thinking.”

“People have to be shown how to get beyond merely poetical, artistic imagination to creative moral imagination.”

The content of The Philosophy of Freedom is not contrived or the results of mystical superstition, but rather in the strictest sense the result of introspective observation verifiable by others.

“You will find nothing at all in The Philosophy of Freedom that is derived from clairvoyant communications of spiritual science. It is written for the express purpose of disciplining thinking without any mention of theosophy.”

In the first decade of the 20th century, August Ewerbeck got word that there were intimate circles in which Rudolf Steiner gave special esoteric training to those admitted to them. So he asked his teacher whether he too might be allowed to attend, and received the astonishing reply: “You don’t need to! You have understood my Philosophy of Freedom!”

"Those who had no desire to undertake the uncomfortable and demanding pursuit of clear thinking, were little attracted to the direction taken by The Philosophy of Freedom."

"Too many seeking experience in all sorts of unclear paths, nebulous mystical approaches, attached themselves to what anthroposophy was trying to achieve in clarity. This group of people attracted the attention of a lot of ill-disposed persons who now attack, what people with whom I have no connection whatsoever, have been saying. But in these attacks they attribute to 'me' what these vague mystics have produced as their own twisted version of something intended to meet the urgent needs of our modern culture. 
“What is needed is the brightest clarity in everything that has to do with thinking, not vague mysticism.”

“The proper study of this book gives the reader an inner attitude that enables him to stand entirely on his own feet in relating to anthroposophy.” 
It teaches her to present it on her own authority rather than on that of someone else.

The Philosophy of Freedom is a Path of Freedom 

When in the bright circles of the spirit,
The soul calls forth 
Pure energy of thinking,
It lays hold on knowledge of what freedom is.
When entering fully in life, 
Free, conscious man 
Shapes reality from willing,
Then freedom is made living fact.

Steiner initially divides the problem of free will into freedom of thought and freedom of action. He argues that inner freedom is achieved when we bridge the gap between our perception, which reflects the outer appearance of the world, and our cognition, which give us access to the inner structure of the world. Outer freedom arises when we bridge the gap between our ideals and the constraints of external reality, letting our deeds be inspired by what he terms moral imagination. Steiner considers inner and outer freedom as integral to one another, and that true freedom is only achieved when they are united.

“My book addresses itself mainly to the question of how philosophy, as an art, deals with the subject of human freedom, what the nature of freedom really is, and whether we already possess it or can develop it.”

The Philosophy of Freedom is a Path of Pure Thinking 

“What I called pure thinking in my Philosophy of Freedom was certainly not well named when judged by outer cultural conditions. For Eduard von Hartmann said to me: 
“There is no such thing, one can only think with the aid of external observation.” And all I could say in reply was:
“It has only to be tried and people will soon learn to be able to make it a reality.”

When is an action free? Only when it has its origin in pure thinking.

The Philosophy of Freedom is a path, a method leading to the actual experience of a thinking detached from the body-soul makeup.

“Freedom dawns when we enable the will to become an ever mightier and mightier force in our thinking.”

“Out of pure thinking there can flow powerful impulses to moral action that are no longer determined by anything but pure spirit.”

“The intention in my Philosophy of Freedom is that the reader must lay hold with his own thinking activity page by page, that the book itself is only a sort of musical score, and that one must read this score through inner thinking activity in order to progress continually out of his own resources from thought to thought. Who does not sense that he was in a manner been lifted above his ordinary way of thinking into a thinking free of the sense perceptible and that he moves altogether in this so that he feels that he has become ‘free’ in his thinking from the limitations of the corporeal nature, –such a person has not really read in the true sense of the word this Philosophy of Freedom.

The Philosophy of Freedom is a Path of Study

Incomprehensible!…. Baffles the experts!….. You’ll never finish it!….. It’s a tangle of thought!…. 
These are the comments on the disappointing experience of readers when Rudolf Steiner first published The Philosophy of Freedom in 1894.

“Back in the 1890’s when the book was published, people hadn’t the least idea what to do with it. It was as though Europeans had been given a book in Chinese, and couldn’t understand a thing it said.”

“Readers often stop reading the book soon after they begin it, for the simple reason they would like to read it as they do any other book.” 
“Other popular books are read on a chaise lounge letting thought pictures pass in review before one’s mind.”

“In The Philosophy of Freedom, readers have to keep shaking themselves to avoid being put to sleep by the thoughts they encounter. One has to try with all of one’s human strength to activate one’s inner being, to bring one’s whole thinking into motion.”

“The least honest, are those who read The Philosophy of Freedom as they would any other book, and then flatter themselves that they have really taken in the thoughts it contains. They’ve kept on reading strings of words without anything coming out of it that might be likened to the striking of steel on flint.”

Now what kind of reader approach did The Philosophy of Freedom count on? It had to assume a special way of reading. It expected the reader, as they read, to undergo the sort of inner experience that, in an external sense, is really like waking up out of sleep in the morning.

“The primary purpose of my book is to serve as thought training, training in the sense that the special way of both thinking and entertaining these thoughts is such as to bring the soul life of the reader into motion in somewhat the way that gymnasts exercise their limbs.”

The reading of the Philosophy of Freedom should not be a mere reading, it should be an experiencing with inner shocks, tensions and resolutions.

The Philosophy of Freedom is a Path of Ethical Individualism

We hear calls for an improvement of public morality, but this overlooks the fact that moral action is a characteristic only of the free individual. Actions motivated by instincts, reflexes, dispositions, maxims, commandments, social and religious customs and even laws are not truly moral. A deed can only be described as moral in the truest sense when the individual has intuited the moral principle for the particular situation and brought into play the imagination needed to realize that principle in the deed.

Free moral action involves moral intuition, moral imagination, and moral technique.

Moral Intuition: The capacity to intuitively experience the particular moral principle for each single situation.

Moral Imagination: The ability of imagination to translate a general moral principle into a concrete mental picture of the action to be carried out.

Moral Technique: The ability to transform the world according to moral imaginations without violating the natural laws by which things are connected.
What I have outlined here is what Rudolf Steiner called ethical individualism.

The Philosophy of Freedom is a Path of Clairvoyance

When a man in the eighteenth century said, “Embolden yourself, O man, to make use of your powers of reason,” these were considered the words of a great enlightener. Today a still greater challenge must ring out, that is, “Embolden yourself, O man, to recognize your concepts and ideas as the first stage of clairvoyance! The reader of The Philosophy of Freedom should be able to say to oneself: “Now I know, through this effort of my mind in thinking, what pure thinking really is.” Then what I should like to call modern clairvoyance ceases to be anything miraculous. That this clairvoyance should still appear as something particularly miraculous comes from people not wishing to develop the energy to bring activity into their thinking.

The Philosophy of Freedom is a Path of Philosophy

The question of freedom cannot be settled by philosophical argument. Nor is it simply granted to us. If we want to be free, we must work through our own inner activity to overcome unconscious urges and habitual thinking. Today’s materialism seeks to reduce us to totally unfree creatures completely determined by heredity and other influences. The experience of pure thinking is the only possible way of refuting materialism and is attainable by anyone with the goodwill to undertake this path.

The Philosophy of Freedom is a Path of Anthroposophical Community

What appears as the common goal of a community is usually determined by the top down authority of a few leaders who are followed by the others.

The Philosophy of Freedom bases the independence of the human being upon the awakening of pure thinking as the origin of freedom and impulse to moral action.

How can we work together in freedom? Can pure thinking be applied to a group?

Taking life's ordinary concerns as a starting point, group discussion can rise to the level of pure conversation, or rather pure thinking as a group experience that results in group insight, real relationship between person and person, and a powerful impulse to joint activism.

Most of us are so habituated to what has always been done that we find it impossible to conceive of a leaderless society. In a true anthroposophical community, the leader –if there may be said to be one– are impulses to action arising out of pure conversation that is no longer determined by anything but pure spirit.

If we turn toward thinking in its essence, we find in it the power of love in the depths of its reality.

No leaders or external measures can bring about anthroposophical community building. It has to be called forth from the profoundest depths of each one’s consciousness.

"The trouble is The Philosophy of Freedom has not been read in the different way I have been describing. That is the point, and a point that must be sharply stressed if the development of the Anthroposophical Society is not to fall far behind anthroposophy itself. If it does fall behind, anthroposophy's conveyance through the society will result in its being completely misunderstood, and its only fruit will be endless conflict!"

“The members read it, but reading is not the same as understanding. They took what I offered, not as something issuing from my mouth or written in my books, but rather as what this one thought ‘mystical,’ that one ‘theosophical,’ another something else again”

“Anthroposophy is independent of anthroposophical societies and can be found independently of them. It can be found in a special way when one human being learns to wake up in the encounter with another and out of such awakening the forming of communities occurs.”

The Philosophy of Freedom is a Path of Individual Initiative
Asked which of his books he would most want to see rescued if catastrophe should come upon the world, Rudolf Steiner replied without hesitation: "The Philosophy of Freedom."

Many ethical individualists today are applying their idealism in re-imagining our relationship to the environment and one another. They are actively forming civil society organizations to forward: ecological sustainability, economic justice, human rights protection, political accountability and peace. Using the tools of modern communication technology to organize –texting, cell phones, the internet– a bottom up rising of ethical individualists is taking place.

An awakened human spirit working collectively with others can change the world. The possibilities are extraordinary.

The Philosophy of Freedom is a Path of a New Social Order 

“If the ideas contained in my Philosophy of Freedom are to be further developed and applied to external social life, so that these truths may become clear to a larger circle of people, it will be necessary to build a superstructure of the truths of spiritual science on the foundation of that philosophy.”

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Andrei Pinta wrote: Have you thought about doing something like this with the Philosophy Of Freedom ? I know studying PoF implies a lot of thinking by your own, but maybe the student would have some homework (eg. reading the first 10 paragraphs of a chapter) and then disscuss it in a larger group (via skype or what other platform is there), in a thoughtfull manner (eg not monopolize the conversation). I'm sure you'd be a great teacher.

What I find significant in this learning community experiment is finding 28,000 willing participants. I haven't been able to find 6, the minimum for a "group" discussion. Otherwise its "revolution" is the discovery of the experience of group insight that can happen in group contemplation or Goethean conversation. They have also used technology to expand the size of the group. We already have the basic knowledge of how to have life changing individual insight and group insight, the difficulty is having a lab of committed participants to further develop the process. My ultimate goal is active POF study groups conveniently available to anyone interested, in-person or online.

Right now I am trying to produce videos that will present the basic ideas in the book, copying a model produced by the dark side at Prager University.

If you have an interest in forming a lab group to experiment with learning I could set that up. We could begin a study group and see if anyone else was interested.

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note: Rudolf Steiner was a critic of his contemporary Theodor Herzl's goal of a Zionist state, as well as of any other ethnically determined state, as he considered ethnicity to be an outmoded basis for social life and civic identity.

Jewish Daily Forward

Benjamin Netanyahu’s surprising and decisive victory in the Israeli elections has created a wrenching dilemma for many American Jews: how to continue to love Israel while a government that violates many of our community’s values is in place.

This may not be an issue for those who unequivocally support Netanyahu’s aggressive, nationalistic stance, and cheer the fact that he won by dismissing the two pillars of American Mideast policy: the creation of a two-state solution with the Palestinians and the pursuance of a nuclear deal with Iran. The Bibi chorus of our community is already gloating, excusing the candidate’s offensive words about Arab voters, quickly accepting his “clarifications” and falling back on the ancient pull of peoplehood to rally American Jews once again.

It may not work so well this time.

The denial of Palestinian statehood aspirations and the blatant resort to racist statements that Netanyahu expressed in the last days of his campaign won’t soon be forgotten or reconciled, no matter what he now says.

Thus, the dilemma. For years we have been told that we must put aside our liberal values – the values that have allowed us to prosper into the Diaspora’s largest, most proud and significant community – when it comes to Israel. Ignore the occupation. Ignore the domination of an ultra-Orthodox rabbinate.

The occupation and settlement growth can’t continue indefinitely without dramatic change or renewed violence. For one thing, Israel’s already fraught diplomatic and economic relations with Europe will certainly worsen.

It will be harder to contain the growing resentment on college campuses and the growing alienation of many younger Jews. And it will be much harder to support the unquestioning amount of U.S. financial, military and diplomatic aid that Israel receives every year when its government sometimes works against American interests and policies.

The question now for us is how to maintain a genuine connection to Israel and what we believe are its deeply grand and humanistic values while distancing ourselves from a leader who stands for the opposite.

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How to approach The Philosophy of Freedom?

I've been trying to read the Philosophy of Freedom on and off for a few years, but until now I've never really made what I would say is a serious effort to penetrate the materials. For instance, I don't get too concerned if I've catch myself having zoned out several times during the same passage. Rather, I move on and hope that it will sink in by osmosis ... somehow. 

This approach hasn't been an entire failure because I keep coming back to this text, and every once in awhile I'll read something that makes my heart soar and inspirers me to keep going. This morning, for example, I was listening to one of the last few chapters (thank you, Dale Brunsvold) and the description how the "free spirit" singles out an appropriate action reminded of what Thomas Aquinas said about Angels; namely, that each angel is his own specie. Utterly unique and irreplaceable. And just for a moment, I caught a glimpse of whom we are being asked to become. 

Just for a moment.

On the other hand, the approach I've taken is not working entirely well so I'm soliciting suggestions as to how to proceed differently as part of a serious study. In the extreme, I could spend a year on the first 5 or 6 chapters alone, and still feel that the text is much more profound than I'm realizing.

Perhaps the middle ground is that I plow through, making sure that I don't leave a section until I have at least attempted to penetrate it seriously, but don't allow myself to get stalled indefinitely.

Then there is the question of which other texts and exercises (Jügen Strube's thought exercises as well as making the effort to write our own chapter summaries) to incorporate as we go along.

I realize that everyone has to find the way that works best for him or her, but I would be curious to hear what approaches have worked for others in this group.

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How Do We Find Unity In The World?

A separation exists between ourselves and others. How do we find unity? Will a God unify humanity? This video gives a brief history of the land called Israel/Palestine and the use of leaders to unite their people with a God. Of course this results in the conflict between the “chosen people” and the “others”.
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Is Apartheid Inevitable In A Jewish State?

A democracy will strive for the ideal of equality for each individual. Forming a religious State establishes from the beginning that all people will never be equal. It was inevitable that the "Jewish" State Of Israel would become an apartheid State, otherwise non-Jews might gain power. A Jewish State cannot exist without the oppression of the "Others".
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Capítulo XIV. Individualidad y Especie.

Enlace al capítulo aquí. La percepción de un objeto del mundo determina el concepto que el pensar obtiene a través de la intuición. De esta forma, la realidad nos es dada cuando a una percepción determinada uno un concepto por medio del pensar. El concepto queda determinado indirectamente por la percepción. Obtengo los conceptos según la naturaleza de mis intuiciones. Yo me auto-determino indirectamente cuando uno un concepto a una percepción. [1]

Pero en el caso de la “percepción del actuar de un ser humano” –de una individualidad ética– la búsqueda del concepto que determina dicha percepción –el concepto correspondiente a la percepción de su acto– ha de ser buscada como “intuición independiente” de mi propia intuición. Para la observación de la verdadera naturaleza de otro ser humano no me sirven mis conceptos, sino la observación de su naturaleza intuitiva. Habré de observar (1º) cómo forma sus conceptos a partir de su verdadera naturaleza intuitiva, y también habré de observar (2º) el contenido de los impulsos de su voluntad en las acciones de su biografía.

Para poder realizar esta observación, antes debo acrisolar mi propia naturaleza intuitiva. Esto no significa no tener intuiciones propias y por tanto no unir conceptos específicos a la percepción del actuar de otro ser humano, sino  que soy capaz de observar su actividad sin que la mía propia interfiera. Para ello se requiere un largo camino de preparación, donde el observador es capaz de acrisolar su naturaleza intuitiva y, sin convertirse en una proyección auto-perceptiva, que sea capaz de reconocerse en la naturaleza intuitiva del “otro”. Y esta es la actividad propia del amor, pues el vehículo de la libertad es el amor.

[1] La auto-determinación por el pensar consiste en eso, en que yo obtengo mis conceptos de forma individual y que otros individuos obtienen sus propios conceptos, cada uno según su naturaleza intuitiva.

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Capítulo XIII. El Valor de la Vida.

Enlace al capítulo aquí. Realiza todo un  “recorrido” sobre las corrientes filosóficas que buscan el valor de la vida en el mundo del sentimiento –en la relación entre placer y displacer. Descarta una “valoración racional” como herramienta para calcular la relación entre Placer / Displacer pues la “razón” por sí sola no es suficiente. Para captar la realidad no sólo necesitamos el concepto, sino la compenetración de concepto con percepción. Y el sentimiento es percepción.

Encontramos como percepción de la vida que los individuos no se suicidan –estando en pleno uso de sus facultades – aunque en la vida encuentren sufrimiento y dolor. ¿Dónde encontrar la fuente donde estos individuos encuentran VALOR para su vida?[1]

Esta fuente que da VALOR a la vida humana se encuentra en la propia naturaleza esencial como IMPULSO básico del ser humano enla realización de su “humanidad”. Y la medida básica del valor de la vida es precisamente ése impulso. Este impulso relaciona el placer y el displacer de forma indirecta: no es el valor del placer que puede ser satisfecho, o la cantidad de displacer que se debe superar… sino si todavía el impulso es suficientemente intenso para alcanzar los fines propuestos después de haber superado las dificultades.

Así la medida del valor de la vida es la intensidad del impulso y el placer es lo medido.


Si la relación es = 1 : todas los impulsos son satisfechos.
Si la relación es > 1 : existe más placer satisfecho de lo exigido por los impulsos.
Si la relación es < 1 : existe más Impulso que placer satisfecho.

Si no existiera IMPULSO la Vida no tendría un VALOR determinado. 

Así el placer sólo tiene valor en tanto que podamos medirlo en relación con nuestro deseo. Todo ser humano tiende a la satisfacción de sus impulsos –de los fines que él mismo se propone. Y la satisfacción produce placer. Lo realizado tiene VALOR porque ha sido QUERIDO(2) y no por el placer obtenido.

Cuando el ser humano comprende su verdadera naturaleza (individualismo ético – espíritu libre) entonces QUIERE realizarla.(3) Sólo de la libre realización de la intuición que fluye de la esencia humana resulta la moral y su valor. El Ser Humano confiere valor a la realización de un impulso porque éste procede de su ser.

El impulso a la realización del Espíritu Libre es lo que confiere valor a la vida del ser humano.

[1] Es curiosa la relación en español entre los vocablos Valor como medida y Valor como coraje.

[2] De nuevo una nueva curiosa relación de dos vocablos españoles: Querer como impulso de la voluntad y Querer como sentimiento de Amor.

[3] El Amor es Sabiduría interiorizada. Comprender algo es amarlo.

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Rudolf Steiner sobre a FIlosofia da LIberdade

"(... Existe, porém, um outro [caminho de desenvolvimento] mais seguro e principalmente mais exato (...). Ele está descrito em meus livros O método cognitivo de Goethe e a Filosofia da Liberdade.(...) Então entra em atividade o pensar puro. ...)"
Ciência oculta p.247


Em uma conversa com Rudolf Steiner em 1922 Walter Johannes Stein perguntou,“O que restará de seu trabalho em milhares de anos? ...Rudolf Steiner respondeu: “Nada exceto a Filosofia da Liberdade,”e então acrescentou: “Mas tudo está contido nela. Se alguém realiza o ato de liberdade lá descrito, encontrará todo o conteúdo......"


Na primeira década do século XX, August Ewerbeck ficou sabendo que existiam círculos íntimos nos quais Rudolf Steiner dava treinamento esotérico especial àqueles admitidos por ele. Então perguntou a seu professor se ele também poderia receber permissão de participar, e recebeu a espantosa resposta:
“Você não precisa! ...Você entendeu minha Filosofia da Liberdade!”


Princípios básicos da Antroposofia
"Qualquer um interessado em procurar por eles irá encontrar os princípios básicos da Antroposofia já enunciados neste livro."


Maneira de ler a Filosofia da Liberdade
Tem que se assumir uma maneira especial de leitura. Espera-se que o leitor, conforme lê, passe por uma sorte de experiência interior que, num sentido exterior, é realmente como despertar do sono pela manhã"


No prefácio do livro:
"Esta Filosofia da Liberdade não contém, pois, resultados desse gênero [de investigações noológicas/espirituais], como tampouco contém resultados especiais do âmbito das ciências naturais; porém o que ela contém será, a meu ver, IMPRESCINDÍVEL para quem procura segurança para esse gênero de conhecimentos ."

Note: IMPRESCINDÍVEL = nicht entbehren können
"O caminho que conduz ao pensamento não-sensorial pelas comunicações da Ciência Espiritual é inteiramente seguro. Existe, porém, um outro mais seguro e principalmente mais exato, embora seja, por isso, mais difícil para muitas pessoas. Ele está descrito em meus livros 'Linhas básicas para uma teoria do conhecimento na cosmovisão de Goethe' e 'A filosofia da liberdade'. Essas obras transmitem o que o pensamento humano pode elaborar para si quando o pensar não se entrega às impressões do mundo exterior físico-sensível, e sim apenas a si mesmo. Então entra em atividade o pensamento puro - e não apenas aquele que surge no homem com base nas recordações do plano sensível - como uma entidade com vida própria. Nesse sentido, nas obras citadas nada foi extraído das comunicações próprias da Ciência Espiritual. Contudo, mostra-se que o pensar puro, trabalhando apenas em si próprio, é capaz de chegar a conclusões sobre o mundo, a vida e o homem. Essas obras se encontram numa etapa intermediária muito importante entre o conhecimento do mundo sensível e o do mundo espiritual. Elas oferecem aquilo que o pensamento pode alcançar quando se eleva acima da observação sensorial mas ainda evita o acesso à pesquisa espiritual. Quem submete toda a sua alma ao efeito desses textos já se encontra no mundo espiritual; só que este se lhe apresenta como mundo dos pensamentos. Quem se sente em condições de passar por essa etapa intermediária está trilhando um camiinho seguro; e com isso pode adquirir, frente ao mundo superior, um sentimento que lhe trará os mais belos frutos para todo o tempo seguinte."

Ciência Oculta p.247
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Capítulo XII. La imaginación moral.

Enlace al capítulo aquí. Una acción no es libre si viene “determinada” por una representación, ya que el resultado de la actividad (efecto perceptible) determina el impulso de actuar del ser humano (causa perceptible) de forma indirecta a través de la representación.

El “espíritu libre” actúa de acuerdo con sus impulsos, esto es, de acuerdo con intuiciones que él escoge del total de su mundo de ideas, por medio del pensar. Toma una decisión totalmente original sin estar determinada por alguna representación previa. El resultado de su actividad tendrá un contenido de percepción bien determinado, pero el impulso a actuar no se agota en dicha percepción, al igual que el concepto de León no se agota en la percepción de un determinado león.

Si la representación determina de forma indirecta el “impulso a actuar” resultando en actos no libres… ¿cómo podemos actuar sin este intermediario a partir de una intuición moral –esencialidad basada en sí misma?

Aquí entramos en la “imaginación moral”. Lo que el “espíritu libre” necesita para realizar sus ideas, para afirmarse (auto-determinación), es, por lo tanto, la imaginación moral. La imaginación moral es la fuente del actuar del espíritu libre y es la “conversión” del concepto vivenciado intuitivamente en “representación moral”(1). Para realizar la “imaginación moral”, o sea, para determinar creativamente, por medio de la imaginación moral, los actos futuros todavía no realizados(2) tenemos que conocer el mundo fenoménico y saber transformarlo, o darle una nueva dirección (fenomenología de la percepción: principio que rige el contenido de la imagen perceptible -> conocimiento científico tal y como se entiende en la Universidad de Ciencia Espiritual en el Goetheanum). A esto se le denomina “Técnica moral”. El problema es que normalmente partimos del mundo de las percepciones, partimos de lo dado, y buscamos mediante el pensar la ley que se expresa en dicha experiencia perceptiva, pero la “Técnica moral” debe crear primero los hechos que luego incorporamos a nuestro conocimiento. Así, mediante la actividad moral realizamos a un nivel superior lo que la naturaleza realiza a un nivel inferior. El espíritu operante en la naturaleza encuentra en el ser humano su auto-realización como coronación del edificio que Darwing y Haeckel intentaron erigir para las ciencias naturales. Es la teoría de la evolución espiritualizada. 

Intuición Moral --> Imaginación Moral --> Técnica Moral;

Sólo llega a ser algo moral cuando en la vivencia humana se transforma en algo propio del individuo. Sólo el ser humano es productor de lo moral y lo característico de la forma perfecta del actuar humano es la libertad.

Hay que atribuir esta libertad a la voluntad humana en tanto que ella realiza intuiciones puramente ideales. Pues estas intuiciones no son el resultado de una necesidad que actúa desde fuera, sino que están basadas en sí mismas. Si el hombre encuentra que su actuar es el reflejo de una intuición ideal de este tipo, la vivencia entonces como una acción libre. En esta característica de la acción se encuentra la libertad.

Cuando la voluntad humana se basa en la pura intuición ideal cuya esencia propia está fundada en sí misma nada en el organismo participa de este “querer”, es más, la actividad necesaria del organismo humano se reprime, se paraliza, por el elemento intuitivo, siendo sustituido por la actividad espiritual de la voluntad llena de ideas. El hombre es libre en la medida en que es capaz de realizar en su querer la misma disposición anímica que vive en él cuando es consciente de la formación de intuiciones puramente ideales (espirituales).

La realización de los impulsos de mi voluntad me produce placer. ¿Es la obtención de placer lo que busca la libre realización de los impulsos de mi voluntad?


(1) Rudolf Steiner utiliza el término representación como la imagen subjetiva resultante de la unión de un concepto determinado a una experiencia perceptiva concreta. Mientras que representación moral sería la “imaginación moral” que no implica una experiencia perceptiva previa. 

(2) La realización de una “intuición moral” o esencialidad basada en sí misma, sólo puede implicar un acto cuya realización es siempre original, nuevo, creativo. Aunque perceptivamente esté bien determinado. 

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© Tom Last 2017